Jane Long, Mother of Texas
A dentist named Dr. James Long arrived in Texas in 1819 during June.
He and his force of 200 men occupied the present day city of Nacogdoches and the Stone
Fort. He declared Texas to be independent from Spain, or more specifically, New Spain
(Mexico). He left the area to pick up supplies and brought his wife, Jane Long and her
black servant girl, Kian. This was during the year 1820. They arrived with a large armed
force and set up a fort on the coast at Port Bolivar. By this time, New Spain authorities
were becoming alarmed, sent a force to La Bahía where Long and his men journeyed (he left
Jane and Kian at Bolivar) and captured them. Dr. Long was executed. Wife Jane and Kian
decided to remain at Port Bolivar, surviving on fish and what other seafoods they could
obtain, and using a cannon to keep curious Karankawa Indians from coming near them. When
she learned of Long's fate, Jane Long rode horseback to Mexico1 in an effort to
have her husband's murderers punished.
For Texans, Jane Long is considered the Mother of Texas, but to be
more exact Kian should be considered the Black Mother of Texas. Kian remained loyal to
Jane throughout the duration and declined any offer of freedom. It is unfortunate that
Kian is rarely mentioned.
Note that the references come from: Archie P. McDonald. Texas, All Hail The Mighty
State. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 1983. Pages
1 Since they were in Mexico, what the author has to mean
is that she rode further south to find authorities to whom she could report the crime and
seek their help. Not seeing Texas in 1819 as Mexico is a too common ahistorical error.