The Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 Bringing you digitized history, primary and secondary sources
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This subcategory contains 155 links

  • The American aboriginal portfolio (1853)(241 clicks)
    Book by Mary H. Eastman
  • "Camping With the Sioux: Fieldwork Diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher"(2134 clicks)
    "National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution; online edition of Alice Fletcher's 1881 diary; includes a transcript of her ethnographic field notes, reproductions of her sketches of Native American life, and photographs of Nebraska and South Dakota ."
  • "Relocation" vs "Removal": simply another example of "Institutionalized Bigotry"?(443 clicks)
    by Michael McLaughlin (2007)
  • "Witness to Manifest Destiny"(2132 clicks)
    The Apache Nation
  • 'The Earth Does Not Belong to Man; Man Belongs to The Earth'(2098 clicks)
    Dispels the belief that Chief Seattle said this expression.
  • A Guide to the Great Sioux Nation(1685 clicks)
    Travel oriented but useful
  • After Columbus: Four-hundred Years of Native American Portraiture(334 clicks)
    369 prints and drawings by Simon van de Passe (1595-1647), George Catlin (1796-1872), and Karl Bodmer (1809-1893), dating from 1627 to the 1830s; 227 gelatin silver and platinum prints by photographers Edward S. Curtis (1868-1954), Karl E. Moon (1878-1948), and Frank A. Rinehart (1862-1928), and sculptor Frederic Allen Williams (1898-1958), from the late 1890s to 1927.
  • Alaska Natives Online(1877 clicks)
    Alaska Native and American Indian history, art, celebrities,culture, dance, storytelling, photographs, music, languages, writers, radio, and media. Alaska Natives Online, tourist attractions. Alaska Native and American Indian issues, links and useful internet resources.
  • All Things Cherokee(2386 clicks)
    A variety of materials, some historical, some genealogy.
  • America Before Columbus(282 clicks)
    Charles Mann's most recent book, 1491, won the U.S. National Academy of Sciences’ Keck award for the best book of the year. In this lecture he looks at new reserach on pre-Columbian America. He concludes that the Americas had actually been heavily populated and developed before the arrival of Columbus but then were rapidly depopulated by the introduction of numerous European and African diseases, giving Europeans the mistaken idea that their new land was a vast, empty wilderness.
  • American Aboriginal Portfolio(288 clicks)
    The American aboriginal portfolio by Mary H. Eastman ; illustrated by S. Eastman, U.S. Army. Published 1853 by Lippincott, Grambo in Philadelphia .
  • American aboriginal portfolio, The(335 clicks)
    Cover of: The American aboriginal portfolio by Mary H. Eastman Manage Covers The American aboriginal portfolio by Mary H. Eastman ; illustrated by S. Eastman, U.S. Army. Published 1853 by Lippincott, Grambo in Philadelphia.
  • American Horse, Sioux Chief(1666 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • American Indian History and Related Issues(2861 clicks)
    "This world wide site is a developing site supervised by Professor Troy Johnson and is dedicated to the presentation of unique artwork, photographs, video and sound recordings which accurately reflect the history, culture and richness of the Native American experience in North America and has been expanded to include Indian people of Central America and Mexico."
  • American Indian Oral History Collection(1735 clicks)
    Thirty half-hour interviews on audio cassettes conducted by historians and anthropologists, for research and classroom use. Teaching guide included.
  • American Indian Photograph Collection(1431 clicks)
    Washington State History Museum Collections Online
  • American Indian Policy(919 clicks)
    Early policy
  • American Indians of the Pacific Northwest(1042 clicks)
    This site provides an extensive digital collection of original photographs and documents about the Northwest Coast and Plateau Indian cultures, complemented by essays written by anthropologists, historians, and teachers about both particular tribes and cross-cultural topics. These cultures have occupied, and in some cases still live in parts of Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. Maps are available that show traditional territories or reservation boundaries.
  • An Ungrateful Nation(1455 clicks)
    "While working as an agricultural expert for the Bureau of Indian Affairs after WW II, the author [George McColm]co-wrote a report that revealed the desperate plight of the Navajo people who lived on the brink of starvation in the American Southwest."
  • Ancient Cultures of the Southwest(983 clicks)
  • Ancient Ones of the Southwest(1530 clicks)
    The people and cultures that inhabited the American Southwest in prehistoric times."
  • Andrew Jackson Addresses Congress(1762 clicks)
    On Indian removal policy
  • Anti-Indian Movement on the Tribal Frontier(1432 clicks)
    By Rudolph C. Ryser. Introductory chapter
  • Arkansas Archeological Society(1695 clicks)
    Indian sites
  • Assignment Geronimo(1264 clicks)
    "General Nelson Miles summoned Lieutenant Charles Gatewood to Albuquerque in July 1886 and ordered the reluctant veteran of the Apache wars to go find the elusive Chiricahua leader down in the mountains of Mexico."
  • Autobiography of Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak, or Black Hawk (316 clicks)
    embracing the traditions of his nation, various wars in which he has been engaged, and his account of the cause and general history of the Black Hawk war of 1832, his surrender, and travels through the United States. Dictated by himself. Antoine LeClair, U. S. interpreter. J. B. Patterson, editor and amanuensis. Rock Island, Illinois, 1833. Also, life, death and burial of the old chief, together with a history of the Black Hawk war, by J. B. Patterson ... Published 1882 by Press of Continental Printing Co.] in [St. Louis .
  • Bibliographies of Northern and Central California Indians(1938 clicks)
    From the University of California, Berkeley
  • Black Hawk War(328 clicks)
    The Black Hawk war including a review of Black Hawk's life illustrated with upward of three hundred rare and interesting portraits and views, by Frank E. Stevens. Published 1903 by Frank E. Stevens in Chicago, Ill .
  • Black Hawk, The totem of (324 clicks)
    The totem of Black Hawk a tale of pioneer days in northwestern Illinois and the Black Hawk war by Everett McNeil ; illustrated by Henry S. Watson. Published 1914 by McClurg in Chicago
  • Cahokia(337 clicks)
    Cahokia: A Pre-Columbian American Indian City by Timothy R. Pauketat
  • Camping With The Sioux(1089 clicks)
    "The following text is based on two journals kept by Alice Fletcher during a six-week venture into Plains Indian territory in 1881."
  • Carrie de Voe, Legends of the Kaw. 1904(1166 clicks)
    The folklore of the Indians of the Kansas River Valley.
  • Center for the Study of the First Americans(650 clicks)
    The Center for the Study of the First Americans explores the questions surrounding the peopling of the Americas. The Center pursues research, education, and public outreach.
  • Change and Crisis: North America on the Eve of the European Invasion(439 clicks)
    by Christopher Miller
  • Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains(1309 clicks)
    The HTA republishes this 1918 book, written by a Sioux, about some leaders of Plains Indian tribes. Included are Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and Chief Joseph. General George A. Custer plays a role in some of the narratives. The HTA also publishes each biography separately. Check the Articles and Books: United States menu.
  • Charles Curtis, Vice-President of the United States(1276 clicks)
    Native American
  • Cherokee History(1738 clicks)
    History and geneaolgy.
  • Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831)(1451 clicks)
    The court ruled against the Cherokee.
  • Chief Joseph, Nez Perce Chief(1150 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Chief Menominee(1121 clicks)
    Several articles dealing with this Indiana chief and the commemoration of his life.
  • Choctaw History(1481 clicks)
    A Journey Past supplies lots of links.
  • Colonial Virginia(271 clicks)
    The Colonial Virginia Frontier and International Native American Diplomacy by William E. White
  • Crazy Horse(474 clicks)
    PBS. Tashunca-uitco (1849-1877)
  • Crazy Horse, Sioux Chief(1265 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Crow Tribe(28 clicks)
  • Dahcotah, or, Life and legends of the Sioux around Fort Snelling(721 clicks)
    Book by Mary H. Eastman
  • Dakota Conflict Trials, 1862(1007 clicks)
    The mass hanging was the concluding scene in the opening chapter of a story of American-Sioux conflict that would not end until the Seventh Calvary completed its massacre at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on December 29, 1890.
  • Discussion of the Iroquois Constitution(1659 clicks)
  • Doris Duke Collection(1024 clicks)
    The Duke Collection of American Indian Oral History online provides access to typescripts of interviews (1967 -1972) conducted with hundreds of Indians in Oklahoma regarding the histories and cultures of their respective nations and tribes.
  • Eugene War, The Indian War of 1864(1248 clicks)
    Book published in 1911. Subtitled: "Being a Fragment of the Early History of Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado and Wyoming."
  • First Nations Histories(1700 clicks)
    Excellent site
  • Flags of the Native Peoples of the United States(1230 clicks)
    Flags and their stories
  • FOR THE GOOD OF THE TRIBE : The Law of the Crow Nation During the Buffalo Days(27 clicks)
  • From Wounded Knee to Capitol Hill(1384 clicks)
    The History, Achievements and Legacy of the American Indian Movement by Jeremy Schneider.
  • Gall, Sioux Chief(1023 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Geronimo: His Own Story(1281 clicks)
    George Welling's excellent site
  • Grand Village of the Natchez Indians(838 clicks)
  • H-AMINDIAN: New Media for Native Studies(1338 clicks)
    Listserv dedicated to the study of the first immigrants to the Western Hemisphere and their descendants.
  • Henry L. Dawes, "The Indian Territory."(1167 clicks)
    1900 paper by a Indian Commissioner
  • Henry L. Dawes, Have We Failed the Indian?(1315 clicks)
    1899 article from Atlantic Monthly
  • Historical Nez Perce Archive Photography(1267 clicks)
    The photos below are presented for public viewing and education on the Internet. They have been made available by the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
  • History of Tecumseh & Tippacanoe(1715 clicks)
  • History of the Cherokee(1397 clicks)
    The History of the Cherokee" website is a tribute to the strength and determination of our people to survive centuries of trials and oppression.
  • History of the Cherokee(1164 clicks)
    This website is designed and maintained by Ken Martin, a Cherokee of mixed-blood and a tribal member of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.
  • Hole-in-the-Day, Ojibway Chief(1131 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Horse Culture(292 clicks)
    The Impact of Horse Culture by Elliott West
  • Images of Native America: From Columbus to Carlisle(1542 clicks)
    Essays on how "whites" viewed the peoples of the New World, the Indians, as they were called.
  • Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties(1251 clicks)
    "An ongoing digitizatio project, the site contains the full text of over three hundred treaties concerning Native American Indian tribes."
  • Indian Country Virginia(510 clicks)
    In this live performance at Colonial Williamsburg’s Kimball Theatre, the History Guys take on the history of Indians in Virginia. From Jamestown to Thomas Jefferson to Disney’s Pocahontas, they consider some of the ways Virginian Indians have been imagined by non-Native people, and reflect on how those images have shifted over the centuries. Along the way, they are joined by two special guests, actor Larry Pourier and Colonial Williamsbug’s own Buck Woodard — both of whom contributed to the 2005 film The New World.
  • Indian industrial school, Carlisle, PA(194 clicks)
  • Indian industrial school, Carlisle, PA (1895)(317 clicks)
  • Indian Peoples of the Northern Great Plains(1705 clicks)
    "Images of the Indian Peoples of the Northern Great Plains is a searchable online photograph database created with grant support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services National Leadership Grant Program."
  • Indian Removal(292 clicks)
    by Theda Perdue
  • Indian Reservations(1410 clicks)
    Info on the reservations
  • Indian Slavery in the Americas(318 clicks)
    by Alan Gallay
  • Indian Territory, Warm Springs(1298 clicks)
  • Iroquois Constitution(1343 clicks)
    From the The University of Oklahoma Law Center. See this site for a wealth of documents.
  • Iroquois League(261 clicks)
    by Matthew Dennis
  • Iroquois Net(1701 clicks)
    Includes links to other sites
  • Lakota Noon at the Greasy Grass(1238 clicks)
  • Lenape Indians(1406 clicks)
    Museum of the Lenape Indians is in Allentown, Pennsylvania.
  • Life of Sitting Bull and history of the Indian War of 1890-91...(289 clicks)
    by W. Fletcher Johnson. Published 1891 by Edgewood in [s.l.] .
  • Literature of Justification(381 clicks)
    Literature of Justification is an ongoing project by students at Lehigh University that takes as its provocative starting point the "gigantic question" that Washington Irving asks in his1809 History of New York (Book I, chapter v): "What right had the first discoverers of America to land, and take possession of a country, without asking the consent of its inhabitants, or yielding them an adequate compensation for their territory?"
  • Little Crow, Sioux Chief(1090 clicks)
    Biography from Charles Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Little Wolf, Cheyenne Chief(1110 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Mesa Verde Photo Gallery(909 clicks)
  • Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians(1517 clicks)
    New site
  • Mississippian Moundbuilders and their Artifacts(1112 clicks)
  • Mushulatubbee and Choctaw Removal(1345 clicks)
    Google Booj
  • Myths of the Cherokee(303 clicks)
    by James Mooney. Published 1902 by G.P.O. in Washington .
  • Native American Documents Project(1234 clicks)
    This collection currently includes the narrative reports of the commissioner of Indian affairs for 1871, 1872, 1875, and 1876, and three additional reports for 1871. It also includes a map of western reservations published with the 1875 report.
  • Native American Sites(1585 clicks)
  • Native American Tribes, 1783(1328 clicks)
    Map east of the Mississippi River.
  • Native American Voices(296 clicks)
  • Native Americans in Indiana(1180 clicks)
    Resistance and Removal
  • Native Americans in North Georgia(2575 clicks)
    Creek, Cherokee
  • Native Americans: American Historical Images On File(1042 clicks)
  • Native Village(1160 clicks)
  • clicks)
    Devoted the Native Americans, i.e., immigrants before 1492
  • Navaho Legends (1897)(168 clicks)
  • Nez Perce Photo Archive(355 clicks)
    The photos below are presented for public viewing and education on the Internet. They have been made available by the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Text for the archive photos presented for your viewing below has been written by Stan Hoggatt of Western Treasures and may not reflect the view of the National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. The photos may not be copied or used in any manner except for your viewing on this page on the Internet.
  • Onieda Indian Nation(1628 clicks)
    Iroquois tribe in upstate New York
  • Painted Warriors(1278 clicks)
    Artist George Catlin painted pictures of American Indians.
  • Pocahontas(451 clicks)
  • Powhaten Indian Village(410 clicks)
  • Pueblo Revolt(370 clicks)
    by Edward Countryman
  • Pushmataha: Choctaw Warrior, Diplomat, and Chief(1335 clicks)
    Mississippi Choctaw leader. Early 1800s.
  • Rain-in-the-Face, Sioux Chief(942 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Red Cloud, Makhpiya-Luta, (1822-1909)(937 clicks)
    PBS, New Perspectives on the West
  • Red Cloud, Sioux Chief(1085 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Roman Nose, Cheyenne Chief(1117 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Salinas Pueblo Missions(1558 clicks)
    New Mexico. "Two ancient southwestern cultural traditions-the Anasazi and Mogollon-overlapped in the Salinas Valley to produce the later societies at Abó, Gran Quivira, and Quarai."
  • Seminole Negro Indian Scouts(1302 clicks)
    The Medal of Honor, this nation's highest honor for valor, was awarded to four Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts. Buffalo Soldier Regimental returns, show that after twelve engagements and twenty expeditions, not one of their men was killed or seriously wounded in their 17 year history.
  • Seminole Tribe of Florida(816 clicks)
    This site is dedicated to the rich history and culture of the Florida Seminole Indians.
  • She-Who-Is-Alone's Sacrifice(1041 clicks)
    Comanche legend about the Bluebonnet flower.
  • Shoshone Indians(1679 clicks)
    Fron PBS, Lewis & Clark meet the Shoshone
  • Sitting Bull, Sioux Chief(1157 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Sky's Cherokee Website(1179 clicks)
    The history, language, and culture of the Cherokee people
  • Spotted Tail, A Sioux Chief(963 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • Stereotyping Native America(898 clicks)
    photo essay
  • Tamahay, Sioux Chief(1143 clicks)
    Biography from Charles Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftains.
  • The Black Hawk War, 1831-1832 : v. II, letters and papers; part I, April 30, 1831-June 23, 1832(289 clicks)
    The Black Hawk War, 1831-1832 v. II, letters and papers; part I, April 30, 1831-June 23, 1832 compiled and edited by Ellen M. Whitney. Published 1973 by Illinois State Historical Library in Springfield .
  • The Cherokee National Historical Society(1244 clicks)
  • The Chickamauga Cherokee(1101 clicks)
    brief history of the The Chickamauga Cherokee. Georgia, Tennessee, South Carolina.
  • The Death of Wilhautyah(1226 clicks)
    "When a white settler killed a Nez Perce warrior in 1876, the incident set off a chain of events that led to war." By Mark Highberger
  • The Federalist Papers(1342 clicks)
    From the Revolution to Reconstruction project
  • The great Indian chief of the West, or, life and adventures of Black Hawk.(279 clicks)
    Published 1856 by H.M. Rulison in Cincinnati, Philadelphia .
  • The Illini Confederation: Lords of the Mississippi Valley(1350 clicks)
    When French explorers first journeyed down from Canada to the upper Mississippi Valley in the early Seventeenth Century, they found the region inhabited by a vigorous, populous Algonquin nation who called themselves "Hileni" or "Illiniwek" which means "men."
  • The Lakota Dakota Information Home Page(1349 clicks)
    This page deals with Lakota and Dakota peoples. These distinct but related groups are sometimes referred to as Sioux or Siouan peoples.
  • The Last Major Indian Disturbance in Trinidad(1189 clicks)
    The summer of 1868 brings war band of Cheyennes, Kiowas, and Comanches to town's door by Bryan Zug
  • The life and adventures of Black Hawk(294 clicks)
    The life and adventures of Black Hawk: with sketches of Keokuk the Sac and Fox Indians, and the late Black Hawk war. 7th ed. Published 1849 by G. Conclin in Cincinnati .
  • The Native Americans of Maryland: Great Contributors Underappreciated(1435 clicks)
    By Amy Kirkley, Severn School. Short essay on the interrelationships between the older immigrants (Indians) and the new immigrants (Europeans).
  • The Northern Cherokee Nation of Missouri (1357 clicks)
  • The Seminoles(1298 clicks)
    Seminole tribe of Florida official website
  • The Shawnee(1147 clicks)
    "Links to web sites and information about the Shawnee and many links about Tecumseh."
  • The Wounded Knee Massacre(1240 clicks)
    By Lorie Liggett. Introductory essay. Site contains links.
  • This Week in "American Indian" History(1364 clicks)
  • Thus Spoke Chief Seattle: The Story of An Undocumented Speech"(980 clicks)
    Spring 1985, Vol. 18, No. 1. "Thus Spoke Chief Seattle: The Story of An Undocumented Speech" By Jerry L. Clark
  • Trail of Tears(879 clicks)
    National Historic Trail
  • Two Strike, Sioux Chief(1133 clicks)
    Biography from Charles A. Eastman (Ohiyesa), Indian Heroes And Great Chieftain.
  • Unearthing Tse-whit-zen(973 clicks)
    Tse-whit-zen in the state of Washington
  • Warriors and Chiefs: Cochise(1278 clicks)
    Short bio of Chiricahua Chief Cochise. Apache.
  • Warriors and Chiefs: Stand Watie: Cherokee Chief and Confederate General(1119 clicks)
    "Cherokee Stand Watie exhibited bravery and leadership while fighting for two lost causes."
  • We Shall Remain(267 clicks)
    PBS series
  • We Shall Remain: After The Mayflower(605 clicks)
    Transcript of Episode 1
  • We Shall Remain: Geronimo(645 clicks)
    Trsnscript of Episiode 4
  • We Shall Remain: Tecumseh's Vision(556 clicks)
    Transcript of Episode Two
  • We Shall Remain: Trail of Tears(575 clicks)
    Transcript of Episiode 3
  • We Shall Remain: Wounded Knee(596 clicks)
    Transcript of Episode 5
  • White Bird Canyon: First Fight of the Nez Perce Flight(1178 clicks)
    After Nez Perce soldiers "killed some settlers in Idaho Territory, General O.O. Howard ordered Captain David Perry at Fort Lapwai to go get them, telling him, 'You must not get whipped.' "
  • William M. Edwardy, The Navajo Indians(1249 clicks)
    1890 Harper's Weekley article
  • Wounded Knee(999 clicks)
    Lakota. December 29, 1890
  • Wounded Knee Museum(863 clicks)
  • Wounded Knee Museum(845 clicks)
  • “Long-hair” letter from Commissioner of Indian Affairs(170 clicks)
    “Long-hair” letter from Commissioner of Indian Affairs to Superintendent, Round Valley, California