This subcategory contains 54 links
1512-1513. The Laws of Burgos(125 clicks)
"This was the first systematic code to govern the conduct of settlers in America, particularly in their relations with the native Indians. Among other innovations, the Laws initiated the official use of the old Spanish legal term encomienda, with its implication of duty as well as privilege, in place of the term repartimiento, hitherto used in the Indies to describe the distribution of groups of Indians to individual Spaniards for compulsory labor. The provisions in the Laws for the protection of the natives were considered by the Dominicans to be inadequate and unenforceable; but they represented the first small breach in the wall of officiaL indifference."Acosta on the question of castas in Peru, 1585(88 clicks)
José de Acosta, a Jesuit chronicler of Spanish South America in the late sixteenth century, wrote on the interbreeding of Spaniards with non-Europeans.Bartolome de las Casas(99 clicks)
Beginning of a biography of the famous defender of the Indians. Includes photos.
Bibliography on History of Ideas in Colonial Latin America(80 clicks)
From H-NetBiographic Sources On Spaniards In The New World, 16th-17th Centuries(98 clicks)
From Historical Documents Relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, and Approaches Thereto, ed. Charles W. Hackett (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1923), vol. 1, pp. 33-69, passim.
Burial of an Archbishop-Viceroy in Mexico City, 1612(91 clicks)
By Hubert Howe Bancroft, a 19th century historian.Cabeza de Vaca's Adventures in the Unknown Interior of America(96 clicks)
1542 document. "THIS SIXTEENTH-CENTURY odyssey of Cabeza de Vaca's is one of the great true epics of history. It is the semi-official report to the king of Spain by the ranking surviving officer of a royal expedition to conquer Florida which fantastically miscarried.
Four out of a land-force of 300 men--by wits, stamina and luck--found their way back to civilization after eight harrowing years and roughly 6,000 miles over mostly unknown reaches of North America. They were the first Europeans to see and live to report the interior of Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and northernmost Mexico; the 'possum and the buffalo; the Mississippi and the Pecos; pine-nut mash and mesquite-bean flour; and a long string of Indian Stone Age tribes. What these wanderers merely heard and surmised had just as great an effect on subsequent events as what they learned at first hand."
Caribbean Pirates(107 clicks)
Images and a document. Spanish empire.Castas(101 clicks)
Think sheet on castes/castas. Nice images to illustrate Spanish ideas on genetic mixtures.Causation and the Spanish American Independence Movements(77 clicks)
PROBLEM: Why did virtually all of Spain's American colonies eschew their allegiance to her and declare themselves independent republics during the first quarter of the l9th century after some 300 years of voluntary obedience to and defense of the Crown? Charles III: Expulsion of the Jesuits (l767)(96 clicks)
Translated original document.Colonial Latin America(104 clicks)
"Bring alive the study of Colonial Latin America - this collection of images, sounds, and text can help approach this history in a creative and mind expanding way."
Colonial Latin America Chronology(80 clicks)
From Peter Bakewell at Emory.Colonial Latin American Economic History database(94 clicks)
This Web Site, created and managed by Richard L. Garner, is dedicated to the study of the Economic History of Colonial Latin America and the Atlantic World. It includes on-line essays that analyze colonial economic data, data sets including the accounts of the Spanish royal treasury, and a bibliography that contains more than 2,000 titles."
COLONIAL Spain & Portugal Chronology: Latin American Colonial Period(91 clicks)
Chronology as an aid to students and others.Conquerors to Bureaucrats, bureaucracy ascendant, 1550--(91 clicks)
A slide show from the University of MichiganDonald J. Mabry, Colonial Latin America(95 clicks)
Colonial Latin America is an outstanding and brief history of the colonial period of Latin America. Buy a copy from Llumina Press and enjoy!Economy(87 clicks)
Notes on the Spanish American colonial economy.Engraving of Brazilian Natives(96 clicks)
Jean de Léry, 1578
European Backgrounds to the Discovery of America(95 clicks)
Brief notes on the Spanish and Portuguese national monarchies.Family and Frontier in Colonial Brazil: Santana de Paraíba, 1580-1822(112 clicks)
Scholarly book by Alida C. MetcalfFrontier Missions in Texas (99 clicks)
Government and Law in Spanish Colonial America(88 clicks)
Extensive notes on the government and law in Spanish Colonial AmericaHowse, Derek, and Norman J. W. Thrower, editors A Buccaneer's Atlas: Basil Ringrose's South Sea Wa(111 clicks)
Scholarly book but images omittedJorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa on castas in Spanish South America(104 clicks)
Spanish commentators on the South American colonies in the mid-eighteenth century. Late Colonial images(102 clicks)
Dr. Kris Lang presents images from the late colonial period. Click on the thumbnails.
Letter from Lope de Aguirre, rebel, to King Philip of Spain, 1561(88 clicks)
The following translation is by Tom Holloway, History, Cornell
University, from the version published in A. Arellano Moreno (org.),
DOCUMENTOS PARA LA HISTORIA ECONOMICA DE VENEZUELA, (Caracas, Univ.
Central, 1961). Merchant's letter of 1553(98 clicks)
The letter of 1553 from a merchant in Seville to his partner and agent in Lima. Metcalf, Alida C. Family and Frontier in Colonial Brazil: Santana de Paraíba, 1580-1822(115 clicks)
Scholarly bookNotes on Periods in Colonial Brazilian History(106 clicks)
Brief outline of Brazil in its colonial era, identifying major periods.Notes on Spanish Imperial Defense of Latin America(91 clicks)
Brief notes on how Spain defended its New World empire. By Don Mabry.Paying the Price of Freedom: Family and Labor Among Lima's Slaves, 1800-185(91 clicks)
Scholarly book by Christine HünefeldtPirates Ports of Call(94 clicks)
Slideshow prepared by Dr. Kris Lane. The thumbnails lead to larger images.Purchasing Whiteness: Race and Status in Colonial Latin America(124 clicks)
Review of Aguirre: The Re-creation of a Sixteenth Century Across South America(82 clicks)
Peter Winn's informative review of a controversial conquistador and rogue.Royal Instructions for the Viceroy Mendoza(93 clicks)
"instructions given by the Emperor Charles V to Don Antonio de Mendoza, first viceroy of New Spain (Mexico) in 1535. The instructions reveal not only what the Spanish crown intended a viceroy to do in those early years of the empire, but also the crown's notions of the colonies' usefulness to Spain." Slavery in Brazil: The World of the Sugar Plantation(98 clicks)
Spaniards Supervise Black Slaves in the Mines of Hispaniola(96 clicks)
Engraving by Theodor de Bry, 1590.Spanish Colonial Administration(116 clicks)
Think sheet with links.Structure of the Spanish Colonial System(79 clicks)
The structure of the New World Spanish empire.The 'Door of the Seas and the Key to the Universe'(93 clicks)
Subtitle: Indian Politics and Imperial Rivalry in the Darien, 1640-1750. Book by Ignacio Galluo Diaz. The Colonial Elite of Early Caracas: Formation and Crisis, 1567-1767(106 clicks)
Scholarly book by Robert J. FerryThe Death of Tupac Amaru(106 clicks)
The Encomienda(98 clicks)
Essay by Meredith Scott explaining the system and its effects.
The Inquisition in 17th-Century Peru: Cases of Portuguese Judaizers(83 clicks)
From Henry C. Lea: The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies, 1908
The New Laws of the Indies, 1542(109 clicks)
"The Laws and ordinances newly made by His Majesty for the government of the Indies and good treatment and preservation of the Indians created a set of pro-Indian laws - so pro-Indian that they some had to be revoked in Mexico and in Peru due to settler opposition. where the viceroy was killed when he attempted to enforce them."
Total Shipping Tonnage Between Spain and Spanish America(99 clicks)
1500-1650. Graph showing the volume of trade.TransAtlantic trade, between Spain and America(109 clicks)
Think sheet with links.Tupac-Amarau(104 clicks)
Verdes Trigos(107 clicks)
Henrique Chagas, a Brazilian lawyer, includes info and photos of Paraguayan missions in this web site.Viceregal Government(93 clicks)
Excellent organizational chart Viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1650(101 clicks)
Colored simple map showing Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, ca. 1650Viceroyalty of Peru, ca. 1650(91 clicks)
Simple, colored map showing the extent of the Viceroyalty.Wind and Ocean Currents in Summer(100 clicks)
Map of Atlantic winds and currents in summer. Important to understand sailing ships crossing the Atlantic.