III. JACKSONVILLE, MAYPORT AND PABLO NAVIGATION COMPANY
The Jacksonville, Mayport,
and Pablo Navigation Company (commonly called the JM&P) was created in1886
by a Scottish immigrant, Alexander Wallace, and it suffered a tortured
history. It never attained the support
or status or longevity of the J&A.
Wallace was born between 1828 and 1835 (the U.S. Censuses differ)
who went to sea as a young man. Briefly he participated in the California Gold
Rush of 1849 but returned east and settled in New York sometime before 1859.
The U. S. Census of 1860 said he was an estimated 32 years old (i.e. born in
1828) and lived in the 3rd District, 16th Ward of New York City, that is, where
he was in 1859. He did move around but on the sea for he was, as legend has it,
a captain of his own ship. He joined the United States Navy to fight for his
new country during its Civil War. “He was appointed Acting Master on 5 July
1862, Acting Volunteer Lieutenant on 1 May 1865, and was honorably discharged
on 28 November 1865.” He served on vessels in the East Gulf Blockading
Squadron--the steamer Magnolia in
1862 blockading off Key West and the steamer Hendrick Hudson in 1863 and 1864 blockading the coast around St. George's Sound near Carabelle.
took his fancy for, according to the U. S. Census of 1870, he was living in
Jacksonville as a 36 year old with his wife Mary (born Ireland) who was also
36, their son William (Willie) born in New York in 1865, and a 21 year old
white woman named Winifred Leonard who
was born in Scotland in 1849. Wallace’s house was worth $5,000 and his personal
estate $9,000, quite a bit of money! The Book of Jacksonville, a quarter of a
century later, bragged that the average working man’s wage in 1895 was 24 cents
an hour, possibly $507 a year if he was lucky enough to work 48 hours a week
for 44 weeks, which was unlikely.
The basis of his prosperity was the Alligator Lumber Mill, a
business involving buying and selling lumber and operating saw and planing
mill. His advertisement in the 1876 Jacksonville city directory featured the
sale of yellow pine lumber and timber. He lived on Shell Road (now Talleyrand
Avenue) in East Jacksonville. In 1874
he and Thomas V. Cashen were partners in the Alligator Lumber Mill which had
established a branch in Palatka, Florida. In 1880, he and Cashen were partners
in the Wallace and Cashen Lumber Company. By 1884, he sold out to Cashen.
other financial interests. He was a director of the Jacksonville Gas Light
Company, chartered in 1885. In 1886, he
was a director of the National Bank of the State of Florida along with J. N. C
Stockton, a friend and confidant who would be the Wallace estate executor after
he died in 1889.
became infatuated with the village of Mayport close to the mouth of the St
Johns River. Mayport (once called Mayport Mills) was important in the lumber
business. As with many prosperous Jacksonville men, he had a summer cottage
there. Families cruised to Mayport from Jacksonville via steamers such as the
famous Kate Spencer or other ships although one could make the trip by a much
more difficult and lengthy land route. Much of the land near the village was
marsh or shifting sand dunes. In some ways, Mayport was an oasis, an “island,”
so to speak. Further east, just south
of the jetties on the beach, was Burnside Beach where some people went to
picnic or spend the night or part of the summer in the small pre-Civil War
hotel. Wallace decided to ease passage by building a three foot gauge railroad
from Mayport to Burnside, thus making it easier to reach accommodations
there. By 1887, he had moved there from
East Jacksonville to Mayport and begun the construction of a sizable house.
The idea of
being the Jacksonville, Mayport, and Pablo Railroad through the wilderness to
the Atlantic coast was not as far-fetched as it appeared in hindsight. Mayport
was a populated place (600 people in 1864) with a thriving fishing business, a
history in the timber industry when it was Mayport Mills, a ready port for the
newly-discovered phosphate deposit, and access to Burnside Beach. He built the
road for tourists, for he first built it on narrow gauge track from Mayport to
Burnside Beach and constructed a hotel and pavilion there, all for tourism.
Thomas V. Cashen, who would be involved in JM&P affairs for years, built
the pavilion. He also planned to
generate freight traffic for he realized that the tourist trade would be
Mayport Mills 1862
and partners formed the JM&P by February, 1886; the Florida Department of
State records show the incorporation date as May 8, 1886 with Wallace as
president and John B. Togni, Antonio Solary, and Levi R. Burrow as directors.
The Florida Times-Union (February 20, 1886) reported that the treasurer
was Solary and the Superintendent was A. L. Dolby. The Florida Dispatch, Farmer and Fruit Grower identified the
organizers as Wallace, Dolby, Solary, L. S. Burrows, Togni, and E. F. Gilbert.
The original plans were to run the road from Mayport along the shore to Pablo
Beach; the newspaper said that route had been surveyed and completion was
expected within three months. More important was the goal of connecting
Jacksonville with the ocean at the mouth of the St. Johns River by building an
Arlington-Burnside-Mayport route with a connection between Arlington and
Jacksonville by boat. As events transpired during Wallace’s lifetime, the
JM&P converted the Mayport-Burnside segment to standard gauge to match the
standard gauge track it laid between Mayport and Arlington.
Stock Certificate, JM&P
Source: Cleve Powell JM&P
Solary was a grocer, liquor wholesaler and retailer, soft drink bottler, and
real estate investor. Born in 1840 in Genoa, Italy, he migrated as a child to
Jacksonville in 1849. According to the federal census of 1870, he was a 30 year
old retail liquor dealer with real
estate worth $5,000 and a personal estate worth $3,000. His business interests expanded to
groceries, feed and grain in 1880. He owned real estate in the Jacksonville
area and south. In April of 1882, he and others formed the Lake Jesup Steamboat
Company and built a wharf and post office in Oviedo near Sanford. In 1887, he
was President of the Jacksonville, Mayport, and Pablo Railway and Navigation
Company. He died at age 61 of chronic nephritis at his home on West Church
Street. Two sons, Antonio J. Solary, Jr. (b. 1874) and Edward J. Solary (b.
1877) and a daughter, Mrs. A. L. McDaniel, survived him.
Togni built the Hotel Togni in 1870 then sold it but bought it back in 1885 and
refurbished it. He owned Togni’s Billiard Saloon, the Metropolitan Hall
theatre, a wholesale and retail liquor business, and a soft drink firm. He
owned at least 83 shares of the Jacksonville Ferry Company (owned by the
JM&P) in 1895.
Togni Saloon and theatre
Eugene F. Gilbert, a Connecticut Yankee, was born about 1837, married an Ohio woman,
and sired six children. By 1876, he was
a jeweler and vendor of Florida curiosities and lived on West Beaver Street in
Jacksonville but he moved his wife and children to Mayport by 1885. Thus, he
was very interested in the development of the JM&P railroad. He bought 180.30 acres of land in the area
known as Neptune but is today present-day Atlantic Beach in 1887 and soon began
lobbying the Duval County government to build a wagon road to the beach.
Gilbert paid for a road survey in 1890 and convinced the county commissioners
to use convict labor to begin clearing the road all the way to Pablo Creek and
even bridging that waterway but a newly-elected commission rejected this road
to nowhere. Nature reasserted itself.
When Henry Flagler bought the Jacksonville and Atlantic Railway in 1899
and extended the tracks to Mayport, Gilbert established Neptune Station so the
train would stop for him.
Neptune Station Source:
Sanborn Maps, 1917
S. Burrows served as a captain in Company E, 3rd Cavalry Regiment Pennsylvania
in 1861, having been in born in about 1835. After 1870, he left Crawford,
Pennsylvania, for Florida. In 1880, he was living in Mayport as a hotelkeeper
and merchant with his wife, Susan A.
"Banny" Gheen Burrows, and four children. He died in 1895.
JM&P began developing Burnside Beach in the summer of 1886. Wallace and
associates paid cash for the railroad as it was built. Wallace, Haworth, and
Burrows planned the proposed town. Completion of the three miles of track
between Mayport and Burnside was expected by July 2nd. By late
August, excursion trains were running between Mayport and Burnside Beach, the
passengers traveling between Mayport and Jacksonville by steamer. Once done,
passenger service would begin. At Burnside, Cashen was building a large
pavilion for visitors. Bathhouses would also be built. According to the
Times-Union, lots were being platted around the pre-Civil War Burnside House.
These could be chosen on an elevation 10 t0 15 feet above the ocean or 300-400
feet further back where there were shade trees. $1,325 worth of lots were sold.
The four-story San Diego Hotel was built.
Plat of Burnside Beach and
V. Cashen was born February 14, 1835, in Picton, Nova Scotia of a shipbuilding
family. He migrated to the United States at age 18 to New London, Connecticut
where he apprenticed himself to a carpenter for three years. Then he worked and
traveled in Illinois, Wisconsin, Missouri and Mississippi between 1855 and
1859. He was in Louisiana from 1859 until 1862 but left when US General
Benjamin Butler captured New Orleans. Cashen, now 27, left to try his luck in
Cuba but soon returned to New York where he served in the quartermaster corps
of the 145th Regiment, New York Infantry in Louisiana, South Carolina, and
Georgia where he was mustered out. In 1866, he moved to Jacksonville. Married
Isabel Frances Van Der Grift and they had a son, Thomas Junior. He became so
successful as a builder that he was able to become a partner with Wallace in
1872. He became sole proprietor of the Alligator Lumber Mill in 1887 when
Wallace cashed out to focus attention on the railroad. The firm earned $200,000
in 1886. In addition, he owns a number of rental houses. In 1882, his personal residence was on St.
Johns in East Jacksonville. He was a member of the influential Board of Trade
and the Commercial Bank. After the J&A was opened he bought land in
northern Pablo Beach (now Neptune Beach) and built a cottage.
had strong ties to the Haworth family, originally of Union County,
Indiana. The Wallace and R. M. Haworth
Company created East Mayport and owned many acres of land in the area. R. M. Haworth was
Western Agent with the Liberty Union Company of Indiana and one of the large
landowners in East Mayport along with JM&P attorney L. S. Burrows who owned
the Burrows House in Mayport. Eli Haworth, M.D., originally of Liberty,
Indiana, came to the area in 1873 and was the lighthouse keeper. His son
Alphonso managed the family hotel, the Burnside House. M. Haworth, owned
substantial property to the south of Mayport, including the old Pablo House, a
2-½ story tabby brick structure from the Second Spanish Period located near the
Pablo-Mayport Cemetery off Wonderwood Drive. “During the 1880’s, over 2300
acres to the south and east of Mayport were owned by ‘Messrs. Haworth, Keeler,
Smith, and Manville’, with numerous summer homes owned by prominent
Jacksonville families being located along the road from Mayport to the
Alphonso Dixon Haworth
railroad began its commercial life on May 17, 1888 with an all-day
excursion by the Knights of Pythias.
Alphonso Haworth belonged to the Jacksonville Chapter No. 12, R.A.M. of
the Knights. They had a grand time at Burnside Beach but the engine failed to
pull the cars across the sand-blown tracks and Pythians abandoned the cars.
Some tried to push it. The party had to walk the eight miles to Arlington.
Other Pythians were stuck in Burnside. Occasional problems after the railroad
officially opened for business June 1, 1888 encouraged the press and others to
call it the “Jump Men and Push.” The
company never lived the slogan down.
is described by Charles Ledyard Norton a few years after service began. One
sailed three miles down river from the
dock in Jacksonville to the Arlington dock and then boarded the train. For the
first ten miles, the train passed through pine forest with the occasional flag
stop. Then the train crosses a prairie bisected by Pablo Creek and Mt. Pleasant
Creek before plunging into a pine hammock. Lastly, it arrives at Burnside Beach
and its hotels, pavilion, and pier. He notes
that the Palmetto Hotel charged $7-10 a week. After Burnside, the train backs
two miles into Mayport where one could stay and eat at the Burrows House.
Mayport was a fishing village but men building the jetties stayed there.
events started the decline of the road, Wallace died of a heart attack in
November, 1889; he was the principal owner. J. N. C. Stockton, as executor of
the estate, ascended to the presidency but faced enormous difficulties. The
Yellow Fever epidemic of 1888 cut passenger traffic to the bone. The San Diego
Hotel, the pavilion, the pre-Civil War Burnside House, and the new 4-story
Palmetto Hotel were destroyed by fire in 1889; they were wooden and susceptible
Noble Cummings Stockton, who went by the initials J. N. C. was born on November
17, 1857 in Quincy, Florida until he moved the 185 miles to Jacksonville with
his widowed mother and his siblings. At age 21, he began working for Ambler’s
Bank as a bookkeeper in 1878,
eventually becoming a partner along with John L. Marvin in the newly named firm
of Ambler, Marvin, and Stockton. The firm would become Merchants Bank in 1890.
Banking was his métier. At age 26, he and other men (including James P.
Taliaferro) helped found the Bank of Tampa in 1883; it became the First
National Bank of Tampa in 1886. Stockton was a president of the National Bank
of the State of Florida as well as the Board of Trade and Chairman of Public
Works. He and his brothers Telfair and Thomas Telfair formed The Florida
Printing and Publishing Company in 1888, folding the Jacksonville Morning News
and the Jacksonville Evening Herald into the established Florida Times Union.
J. N. C. was civic-minded both at the state and local levels. He served in 1897 state legislature and ran
for governor in 1908, losing to Albert Gilchrist.
JP&M enjoyed assets. In 1890, it reported to the Florida Railroad
Commission that it owned 7,111 acres of land. . The track, stations, docks,
rolling stock, and right of way existed. The freight and passenger traffic of
the railroad were established and might recover from the 1888 epidemic. Plans
to connect the road to Pablo Beach and to South Jacksonville had been halted
but not forgotten. So, there were possibilities when Stockton took over the
company but he was not a railroad man nor were the other officers for the most
part in 1891. He brought his brother Telfair Stockton on board as Treasurer and
the twenty-eight-year old son William Wallace, son of the founder, as
Secretary. Sherod L. Earle continued as Superintendent and T. T. Bryan was
Auditor. Earle had been a conductor on the Savannah, Florida & Western Railway in 1887 would be a city councilman in 1901. 
The best solution was to sell the
JM&P which was done on February 10, 1892 for $29,000 to James A. Russell
and David M. Yeomans, both of Ohio, and Horace A. Scott of Kentucky. The buyers
paid $5,000 in cash and two promissory notes, one for $8,000 and the other for
$16,000, payable in 90 days for the balance due. Stockton was to retain
possession of the stock, with the right to vote the same, as security for the
notes, but was to vote it as requested by Russell et al. Thereafter Russell et
al. were permitted to operate the road, and shortly afterwards one of them was
elected president, and the other secretary, and both were made directors.
his partners, however, defaulted on the notes, and though the time was extended
10 days, they never paid any part thereof. The Stockton faction then tried to
take control of the road but the Russell faction got an injunction to stop
Scott served in the 3rd Kentucky Cavalry, Company K, being promoted to Captain on
January 30, 1863. He was mustered out
from the 3rd Cavalry (Kentucky) on July15 , 1865 at Lexington. Not many years
after the Civil War, he commanded the Jeffersonville,
Madison and Indianapolis Railroad in southern Indiana. The town of
Scottsburg, Indiana was founded in 1871
and named after him, the railroad President, when the railroad. In 1878, he ran
for Congress in Louisville, Kentucky as a Republican and lost. He was one of several men in the Ohio River valley who had
railroad involvement who involved themselves in Jacksonville railroading.
Telfair Stockton was born January 31, 1860 in Quincy,
Florida. According to Jacksonville's Architectural Heritage, “at age
sixteen, Telfair Stockton had saved enough money from his job as a newsboy to
open a news and bookstore, thus becoming one of the youngest merchants in
Jacksonville. This entrepreneurship continued throughout his long and varied
career.” He switched to real estate in 1884, founding Telfair Stockton and Company. He
became one of the largest and most prominent real estate developers in Florida..
He married Florence Fitch on January 15, 1885. Between them, they produced Florence Stockton, James Roosevelt,
and Telfair, Junior. He served as President, of the Stockton-Budd Company and
the New Springfield Company. He advocated government funding to deepening the
Jacksonville harbor, build jetties to channel the river's mouth, dredging the
river, and improving railway facilities and inland waterways.
1897-1899--Chairman, Board of Works (1897-1899) and was elected as state
representative from Duval County in 1902 but had little interest in politics. 
He died February 2, 1932.
Archer Harman was President with J.N.C.
Stockton as Secretary-Treasurer. The directors were Harman, Stockton, H. H.
Buckman, T. P. Denham, and Horace Scott (of Louisville, Kentucky). At the end
of December of that year, the JM&P owned
4 locomotives, 14 passenger cars, 2 baggage cars, 2 box cars, 7 flat
cars, a caboose, and two ferry boats. In 1893, the Florida Comptroller reported
it had a total value of $49,090 of which $8,415 was rolling stock.
Archer Harman, ca. 1899
Harman enjoyed the many advantages of being the son of a famous Virginia
Colonel in the Civil War. He was born August 16, 1859 in Staunton. Although the
War damaged the family's economic circumstance, his father sent him to Virginia
Military Institute at age 15 on
September 14, 1874. VMI expelled Archer on February
23, 1875 for being drunk on guard duty. He returned to the family farm where he
was during the 1880 US Census. Staunton needed to rebuild its economy after the
War so leaders decided to repair the Virginia Central Railroad and build the new Valley Railroad to connect
Staunton to Baltimore, Maryland and to
Salem in the extreme southwestern Virginia so, on January 26,
1866, the leaders held a public meeting at which they proposed to extend
the Virginia Central to the Ohio River and raise funds to begin building the Valley Railroad, of which
Archer's uncle Michael Archer became President. The Valley Central had been
built by Cornelius Rice Mason before
the War. C. R. Mason bought a farm near Staunton to be in position to extend
the line to Covington but the war intervened. Mason joined Michael Harman and
others in the Ohio project. They obtained the backing of Collis P. Huntington,
he of transcontinental railroad The
name was changed to Chesapeake and Ohio., Asher Harman worked for Mason.
Construction began in 1869 and ended in 1873 when they reached the Ohio River.
Then Mason, turned this crew to the Valley Railroad. When they had built to
Lexington, Asher sent Archer to VMI; when Archer blotted his copy paper, Asher
put Archer to work on constructing the Valley road but then the Mason
contractors shifted their attention to Kentucky when they won two contracts with the Cincinnati Southern
project of many years hindered by cost overruns and the Panic [Depression] of
In 1885, Harman
left railroad work and moved to a independent businessman. He invested in the Southern Asphalt Company . He became
involved in coal land speculation and
not always honest with his partners and investors. When he lost a $1.6 million suit at the Kentucky Supreme
Court Level December 1892, his career as a contractor and businessman in
Kentucky ended. He moveed to Jacksonville and partnered with Horace Scott.
Henry H. Buckman
Holland Buckman, born June 20, 1858 in Jacksonville., earned a degree from
Cumberland University in Tennessee and was admitted to the Bar on June 20,
1879. He was a Law partner with
Aristides Doggett, one of the most prominent attorneys in the city until
latter’s death in 1890. Buckman served
a term as Jacksonville Police Commissioner. He was appointed in 1895 as
Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of Florida. He was
involved in real estate and promoted Atlantic Beach. In 1893 he represented JM
& P as an attorney. , state
representative who authored the Buckman Act (1905) which created three higher
education institutions, the present University of Florida, Florida A & M,
and Florida State University. He died May 3, 1914.
RR ran from Arlington to the beach near the jetties (Burnside Beach) and then
backed into Mayport. Built by a corporation in which Wallace had the majority
of the stock. Opened in June, 1888; Wallace died in 1889. Stockton (yes, the
same family as the powerful real estate form and the Times Union for years) was
the executor. Stockton managed to sell the road early in 1892 to three men who
issued a promissory note but defaulted. When they didn't meet the 10-day
extension, Stockton took the road back. The Russell group had extended the
track from Arlington to connect with the ferry at South Jacksonville. The ferry
was how passengers of the J&A and the RR to St Augustine go to the trains.
The J&A, however, didn't want to give the JM&P permission to cross its
track so the JM&P bought the ferry and denied J&A passengers until the
J&A yielded. It did. All of this cost and probably is why Russell et al.
defaulted and why they wouldn't let go of the road.
June 30th, the Stockton directors met and demanded possession from the Scott
party but they refused. On Friday, July 1st, the directors met and
deposed Russell thus putting Stockton in charge. They guarded the track on Friday night and chartered a boat to
Arlington, went east on the track for a mile or so, met a train, showed the
engineer the director’s resolution, and took possession of the train with their
engineer driving the train to Arlington.
party retaliated by hiring legal counsel (H. H. Buckman and H. Bisbee) who
filed suit in federal court in a suit entitled James A. Russell, D. M. Yeomans,
citizens of the State of Ohio, and Horace Scott, citizen of Kentucky, versus
John N. C. Stockton, Arthur Meigs, L. P. Earle, and Thomas P. Denham , citizens
of the State of Florida, for conspiracy and trespass; damages $50,000. The
Russell faction won that round.
Meigs, JMP director, was according to the 1895 Jacksonville directory, the
manager and treasurer of Atlantic Lumber Company. He was also General Manager
of the Mount Rogers and Eastern Railroad in Virginia in 1901.
T. P. Denham was involved in banking and railroads. He became Cashier of the National Bank of the State of Florida. In
1903, he was one of the founders of the Atlantic National Bank, the second
largest in Jacksonville. He was President, and a director of Atlantic Suwannee
River & Gulf Railroad Company, founded in 1893.
Yeomans was an incorporator of the Cleveland [Ohio] Safe Deposit and Trust
Company in 1891 and the Director and President of New York and Atlantic
Railroad in 1892.
JM&P and J&A tracks converging in South Jacksonville Source: Cleve Powell
JM&P 1893 Timetable
On July 9,
1893 as date the new JM&P from South Jacksonville to Burnside Beach and
Mayport opened just missing the 4th of July excursions. A bonanza of cash never
came. The December, 1894-January 1894 Corbett v Mitchell prize fight brought
revenue because Corbett trained in Mayport and people took excursions to see
him but this was not recurrent revenue. On September 5, 1895, the JM&P was
sold at public auction to Telfair Stockton who renamed it the St. Johns &
Atlantic. Trains quit running on December, 14, 1895. Mail was delivered by hand
car until 1900; there weren't many people on its route. People fought over the
assets. They were sold stored, or abandoned.
corporation was plagued by law suits, some after it quit operating trains.
There were bones to be picked clean. The JM&P suffered a series of lawsuits
in the 1890s. The most significant one national was the Jacksonville, M. P. Ry. & Nav. Co. v. Hooper et al. (January 13,
1896) involving the claims that the railroad corporation owed the Hoopers money
from unpaid lease payments and for not insuring the San Diego Hotel $6,000 as
promised. The court ruled that railroad corporations could own businesses
beyond the actual operation of a railroad. The hotel burned in November
The J&A got an injunction in mid-June 1893 to prevent the JM&P from crossing its track
This delayed the opening of the Arlington-South Jacksonville route until July
9, 1893, thus preventing the JM&P
from capitalizing ion 4th of July excursion revenue. A court settled the
dispute on June 29, 1893 when the JM&P agreed to pay either $500 or $40 (8% on 500) a year for crossing rights,
the choice being that of the JM&P . However, the J&A brought suit on
October 16, 1896 saying no money had been paid. The October 25, 1897 judgment
was against JM&P for $160. Stockton
trying to get out of paying the $40 it seems.
[The JM&P] went to sale under foreclosure and on September 15, 1895, Robert S. Cockrell, Special Master, conveyed to John N. C. Stockton right of way, rails, machinery, rolling stock, etc. The sale was made by virtue of a decree of the Circuit Court of Duval County in the cause of George F. Broughton vs. the company. John N. G. Stockton and wife conveyed
all the property received by deed from Mr. Cockrell, Special Master, to H. H. Buckman on June 27, 1899. There appears to have been other claims, for the records show that on May 26, 1899, John R. Horr, U. S. Marshal, conveyed to Albion W. Knight, the railway including the right of way, track material, etc. Mr. Knight sold the rail to Sabel Brothers of Jacksonville, and on June 12, 1899, conveyed to H. H. Buckman all the remaining property which he had acquired from the U. S. Marshal. Mr. Buckman having evidently obtained undisputed title, conveyed the old road-bed
and right-of-way, which lay within the Dewees grant, to the Mayport Terminal Company [a Flagler corporation], by deed dated September 5, 1900.
dream was a chimera.