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2: Radio Broadcasts from Hungary

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Radio Broadcasts from Hungary(1)

Tuesday, October 23, 1956


1730 "National flags, young people with rosettes of the national colors Singing the Kossuth(2) song, the Marseillaise and the Internationale -this is how we can describe in colors and in the titles of songs how Budapest today is bathed in the October sunshine and celebrates a new Ides of March.

"This afternoon a vast youth demonstration took place in our capital. . . Although at noon today the Ministry of the Interior banned all demonstrations, the Politburo of the Hungarian Workers' [Communist] Party changed the decision. Scholars, students of technological faculties, students of philosophy, law, economics, together with students from other university branches, took part in the march led by their professors and leaders of the university Party organizations.

"At first there were only thousands but they were joined by young workers, passers by, soldiers, old people, secondary-school students and motorists. The vast crowd grew to tens of thousands. The streets resounded with these slogans: 'People of Kossuth, March Forward Hand in Hand,' 'We Want a New Leadership--We Trust Imre [4/5] Nagy,' 'Long Live the People's Army,' and so forth. The shouts reverberate, the national colors flutter in the air, windows are open. The streets of Budapest are filled with a new wind of greater freedom..."



2300 "This morning, students of all the universities and high schools in Budapest staged a demonstration under the leadership of the Petofi Club of the DISZ, which decided . . . to take responsibility for their [the students'] action. - . . A delegate of the Petofi Military Academy also spoke, expressing the sympathy of the Academy students with the following demands:

"A Socialist Hungary, truly independent; March 15 an official holiday; Imre Nagy reinstated in his former office; the State established on a new economic basis; new leaders for the Party and government; those responsible for mistakes held accountable at a public trial...

"At the Polytechnic University, Mihaly Fekete, Deputy Minister of the Interior, announced to the students that the ban on the march had been lifted. He emphasized that the employees and Communists of the Ministry had rallied to the side of honest Hungarians in the interests of a change. - . . Shortly before 1400 hrs. the youth of the universities gathered in front of the Petofi statue in Pest, singing the Kossuth hymn. . . . The demonstrators, including well-known professors, carried Hungarian and Polish flags. At 1400 hrs. Imre Sinkovits, the actor, recited Petofi's poem, 'Rise, Hungarian!' He then read the demands of the students. Finally, the demonstration marched toward Buda, where it was joined by students of the Polytechnic University, and all gathered before the statue of General Bem(3) - -Nearly 800 officers of the Hungarian People's Army joined the youth and marched in a group. - . . Members of the Petofi Club, with the aid of loudspeakers, thanked those present for their support.

Students bearing Hungarian and Polish flags mounted to the foot of the statue and university delegates placed [5/6] wreaths there. Fifty thousand people sang the National Anthem.

"Peter Veres, Chairman of the Hungarian Writers' Union, then read the seven-point resolution of the presidium of the Writers' Union, and its demands. It runs as follows:

"'We have arrived at a historic turning point. In this revolutionary situation we shall not be able to acquit ourselves well unless all the Hungarian working people rally as a disciplined group. The leaders of the Party and State have so far failed to present a workable program. The responsibility for this lies with those who, instead of expanding Socialist democracy, have obstinately organized themselves and are still organizing in an effort to restore the terrorist regime of Stalin and Rakosi. We Hungarian writers have formulated in seven points the demands of the Hungarian nation.

'1. We demand an independent national policy based on the principles of Socialism. Our relations with all countries, particularly with the USSR and the People's Democracies, should be based on the principle of equality. We demand that the conventions and economic agreements made between States be reviewed in the spirit of equality of rights for the nations involved.

'2. We demand an end to the [present] policy on national minorities.

"'3. We demand a clear disclosure of the country's economic situation. . . -

"'4. Factories should be directed by workers and specialists. The present wage system should be reformed, as should working norms and the disgraceful condition of social benefits, and so forth. Trade unions should truly represent the interests of the Hungarian working class.

"'5. Our present agricultural policy should be established on new foundaLions, and peasants should be assured the right of free self-determination. -

"'6.... The Rakosi clique, seeking restoration, must be removed from our political life. Imre Nagy, the pure and courageous Communist who enjoys the confidence of the Hungarian people and all those who in the past years have fought systematically for Socialist democracy, should be given a suitable post. At the same time, a resolute stand must be taken against all counter-revolutionary attempts and aspirations.

'7. The development of the situation demands that the Patriotic People's Front(4) should assume political representation of the working classes of Hungarian society. Our electoral system should correspond to the demands of Socialist democracy. The people should elect, by secret ballot, their representatives to parliament and to all the autono mous organs of our administration.

'We believe that we are expressing the thoughts of the nation', says the declaration in conclusion." [6/7]

Wednesday, October 24, 1956


0330 "Dear Listeners, we wish you good morning! Please listen to our morning broadcast. Dear listeners, we read you an announcement:

"Fascist, reactionary elements have launched an armed attack against our public buildings and have attacked our armed forces. For the sake of restoring order and until further measures are taken, all gatherings, meetings and demonstrations are banned. The armed forces have received instructions to apply the full strength of the law against those who break this order. Signed: the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic." [The announcement is repeated at 0400, 0430 and 0530.]

0450 "Here is an announcement. The Ministry of the Interior . . - calls on the inhabitants of Budapest not to go into the streets before 0800 [GMT](5) unless their business is of absolute urgency, in view of the fact that the mopping up of looting counterrevolutionary groups is still in progress...

0800 "Attention! Attention! The dastardly armed attacks of counterrevolutionary gangs during the night have created an extremely serious situation. The bandits have penetrated into factories and public buildings and have murdered many civilians, members of the national defense forces, and fighters of the State security organs. The government was un prepared for these bloody dastardly attacks and therefore applied for help, in accordance with the terms of the Warsaw Treaty, to the Soviet formations stationed in Hungary. The Soviet formations, in compliance with the government's request, are taking part in the restoration of order." The announcement goes on to appeal for public calm and order, and support for the "Hungarian and Soviet troops maintaining order." ...[7/8]

2130 "National independence, friendship with the Soviets on the basis of mutual respect and complete equality -yesterday afternoon university youth began its demonstration with these correct ideas.

... What has happened to these ideas in a single night? . . . What have the misled youths, and the counterrevolutionary bandits hiding in their ranks, done with the beautiful patriotic thoughts? Shooting in the streets accompanied by our National Anthem! The plundering of the slaughterhouse accompanied by the waving of red, white and green banners! . . . Robbing, plundering, the shedding of workers blood under the cover of the sacred ideas of national independence and sovereignty. These are no patriots! They are black scoundrels or misled adolescents. The soldiers and workers who come to disarm them are the true patriots. We greet them and the Soviet soldiers rushmg to help them. Let the population of our capital help them everywhere!" [8/9]


1223 "Dear Listeners, a large armed group has laid down its weapons at the corner of Szondi and Vorosmarty Streets."

Repeats amnesty offer, for all who surrender, including "members of the armed forces."

"Several listeners ... have turned to us for explanation of the conditions and the purpose of the arrival of Soviet troops in Budapest. - . - These Soviet units are stationed in Hungary in accordance with the Warsaw Pact. On Tuesday, the enemies of our people turned the demonstration of university youth into an organized counterrevolutionary provocation, and with their armed attacks endangered order and the life of the people throughout the country. The Hungarian government, conscious of its responsibili ties, in order to restore order and security, asked that Soviet troops help to control the murderous attacks of counterrevolutionary bands. These Soviet soldiers are risking their lives in order to defend the lives of the capital's peaceful population and the peace of our nation. After order is restored the Soviet troops will return to their bases. Workers of Budapest, welcome with affection our friends and allies!"

1254 "Attention! Attention! In a few minutes it will be two o'clock [1300 GMT]. Those who surrender before that hour will be exempt from martial law. Attention! Attention! We request that our listeners put their radio sets in their windows. We want to inform counterrevolutionaries and those who were misled that, if they surrender before the deadline, they will be exempt from martial law." - .

1312 "Women! Do not let your husbands run into deadly danger. You must prevent them from supporting counterrevolutionary forces. Mothers! Do not let your sons run in the streets where they face deadly gun barrels. Women! Do not let yourselves be fooled by provocateurs." [9/10]

1950 "The Party and government are masters of the situation. This does not mean, however, that order and calm pre vail everywhere. The situation at 1900 hrs. [GMT] tonight in the capital is that there are still several pockets where armed fighting against our people's democratic regime is being conducted, despite the fact that arms were laid down in many places.

"The organs of the Party and government are present everywhere and consequently they know that in many places individual groups continue to put up resistance, even at this hour, simply because they misjudge or are ignorant of the situation. These groups are being asked repeatedly to lay down their arms, as their situation is hopeless."

2023 "The Hungarian Red Cross appeals to its activists and blood donors to report, if possible by telephone, to the ambulance services of their place of work or place of residence so that in case of need the greatest possible help can be given to those who require it."

2103 "The Budapest directorate of the Hungarian State Railways appeals to those of its workers who have not yet reported for work to go to their places of work tomorrow morning."

2103 "We inform the population of Budapest that the state of emergency is in force as of 1700 [GMT]. This fact will be taken into consideration in judging the cases of counterrevolutionaries who surrender voluntarily." - . . [10/11]

2300 "We shall now read a communique on the situation prevailing at midnight [Budapest time]. . . . The situation has further improved. The armed attackers are increasingly isolated. In some places, however, they have begun new actions. They are carrying out surprise attacks in groups of two or three.

"The Party and government are making every effort to restore order as soon as possible. . . . More and more factories are starting work and it is planned to examine streetcar tracks immediately to prepare for the restoration of service on certain lines. Further bloodshed is senseless. The government demands most categorically that the armed aggressors cease their resistance, surrender or throw away their arms. The government is master of the situation. Let peaceful, constructive work start in as many places as possible, in factories, enterprises and shops."

Thursday, October 25, 1956


0330 "Before we begin our musical program, here is an appeal by the Budapest Party Committee and the Budapest City Council:

"People of Budapest, comrades. The counterrevolutionary gangs have by and large been liquidated. It is possible, however, that small groups attempting to escape might try to take cover in some houses. Our armed forces continue the final liquidation of counter-revolutionary groups. The Budapest Party Committee and the Budapest City Council appeal to the people to try to prevent, for their own sake, the entry of these elements into their houses. They suggest that tenants' committees organize gate guards to prevent armed elements from hiding in the houses."

0345 "The Minister of the Interior appeals to those who have unlicensed arms, ammunition or explosives in their possession to hand them over to the competent district police officers within 24 hours.

- . . Action will be taken under the appropriate regulations against those who fail to obey this appeal." .

0400 "Communique on the situation as of 0300. The situation has improved considerably in comparison with conditions described in the communique during the night. The attackers are laying down their arms and surrendering en masse. Many of them have thrown away their arms. Individual groups of attackers are moving toward Soroksar [village 10 miles southeast of Budapest] with the obvious intention of escape. Another group, with stolen trucks . . is fleeing towards the Western frontiers. Measures have been taken by local garrisons to halt and disarm them. Only a few groups are still putting up resistance in Budapest, in Rakoczi Street near the Palace Hotel, in Magdolna Street, and near the Ferencvaros Railroad Station. Adequate forces will capture and disarm these groups shortly.

"The fighting at the radio station has not yet completely ended either. A small number of those [attackers] on the premises have not yet complied with demands for surrender. There is shooting going on. The operations to clear the broadcasting station completely will start after daybreak.

"There are still small groups, composed of a few people, who wander about the streets or take up positions in doorways. They are firing, taking advantage of the darkness of night and the dim light of dawn. Smaller groups of Hungarian police and military forces are carefully combing [11/12] the city. Daylight will facilitate this work. Robbers and bandits have tried to take advantage of the cover of darkness. Several thieves have already been arrested...

"The police have received information on plans to rob several department stores. ... This bears testimony to the fact that only common criminals are attempting resistance in order to be able to rob and continue their excesses. The Party and government are firmly in control of the situation. -

"The Budapest Party Committee and the City Coundl have appealed to the people of Budapest to begin work quietly and in a disciplined manner. They have also requested that workers not be transported to factories or offices in trucks, because some counter-revolutionary groups are trying to escape by truck and also because such a method of transport might give opportunity for provocative acts. Schools will not be open today."

0500 "The Council of Ministers has issued the following communique:

"On orders of the Council of Ministers the Army, the State security forces and armed workers' guards have liquidated, with the help of Soviet troops, the attempt at a counter-revolutionary coup d'etat on the night of October 24-25. Counterrevolutionary forces have been dispersed, with only minor armed groups and isolated snipers still active here and there. The government appeals to the people to start traffic -streetcars, trolley-buses and buses -wherever possible. Workers must resume work. Let factories produce and offices and enterprises operate. On the other hand, all educational establishments, i.e., the general and secondary schools and higher institutes of study, will remain closed until further notice. Shops must open at the usual time. The government and the Budapest City Council have instructed the competent organs to assure a systematic supply of commodities and food for the population."

0545 "Counterrevolutionary gangs have set fire to several public buildings, dwellings and department stores in Budapest.

- . - At present there is a tremendous struggle to extinguish a serious fire at the National Museum."

0630 "We call the people's attention to the fact that the ban on meetings and public gatherings is still in force."

0630 "The police have retaken the Budapest Szikra printing plant from armed provocateurs and misled persons. The counterrevolutionary forces which occupied the building surrendered this morning and left the plant with raised hands."

0723 "Counterrevolutionary bandits attempted in several places to occupy the telephone exchanges but these attempts were frustrated with the help of State security authorities."

0738 "Szabad Nep the newspaper of the Hungarian Workers' [Communist] Party, did not appear on Wednesday, and today will not appear until noon. The reason for this is the series of tragic events which took place in our capital since Tuesday night, of which one center was the Szabad Nep building.

"Delegations of university students visited our [Szabad Nep] offices very frequently beginning early Tuesday afternoon, and asked us for space to print their resolutions and demands. In the evening, the demands and resolutions changed in contents and in tone. Many demonstrators came to our office and reported tragic events. The more sober of these young people became quite desperate, and said, 'We did not want this.

"After 2100 [GMT] the situation changed radically. The demonstrators were different people. . . . After that hour only the howling of counterrevolutionaries and misled young people could be heard in the square in front of Szabad Nep. They demanded that Szabad Nep publish an appeal for a general strike.

"Then the siege of the building began. The provocateurs attacked with stones, and smashed the building's windows and the glass panels at the entrance. . . - The attackers pushed their way into the building around midnight. They set fire to the Szabad Nep bookshop, broke into it and set the books on fire... Several attackers climbed to the sixth floor and tore down the Red Star. Then the armed attackers (for they had by this time obtained weapons) demanded that the staff hand over the building's loudspeaker system. This the staff refused to do, but the attackers found it and broadcast inflammatory [12/13] and seditious slogans and appeals to the square below. The crowd advanced yard by yard further into the building, breaking, pilfering, smashing. A woman stepped out of a room. She belonged to the demonstrators, but they thought that she was a member of the editorial staff, and shot her dead...

"The attackers had by then occupied the whole building, and found the entrance to the printing plant. - . - It was due to the calm attitude of the printers and journalists that the demonstrators did not destroy the valuable machines. -

0740 "The Minister of Defense ... has issued the following appeal:

"'I instruct those members of the Army who, for one reason or another, have been separated from their units to report to their commanding officers at their formations immediately, not later than 1100 [GMT], October 25.... Signed: Colonel General Istvan Bata, Minister of Defense.

1047 "Although the restoration of order is progressing well . . - certain irresponsible elements and small groups are trying to cause confusion, shots are being fired. . . - We call on the population in its own interest not to go out into the streets unless it is absolute necessary. -

1418 "Now Comrades Janos Kadar and Imre Nagy will address you. Comrade Janos Kadar, First Secretary of the Central Committee, is speaking:

"Hungarian workers, dear comrades! The Politburo of our Party has entrusted to me the post of First Secretary in a grave and difficult situation. - . - The grave situation in which we are involved is characterized by the fact that various elements are mixed up in it. The demonstration march of a section of our youth, which started peaceably in accordance with the aims of an overwhelming majority of participants, degenerated after a few hours, in accordance with the intentions of anti-democratic and counterrevolutionary elements which joined them, into an armed attack against the State power of the people's democracy...

"Comrades, the Central Committee of the Party proposes to the government that, after order has been restored, the government should conduct talks with the Soviet government in the spirit of complete equality between Hungary and the Soviet Union, brotherly cooperation and internationalism, for the equitable and just settlement of questions pending between the two Socialist countries.

"Workers, Communist comrades, be unflinching and firm. Defend the order of the people's power, our Socialist State and the future of the working people."

1425 "You will now hear the speech of Comrade Imre Nagy. member of the Politburo and Premier:

"Working people of Hungary, during the past few days our country lived through tragic events. A small group of counterrevolutionary provocateurs launched an [13/14] armed attack against the order of our People's Republic, an attack which has been supported by part of the workers of Budapest because of their bitterness over the situation of the country. This bitterness has been aggravated by the political and economic mistakes of the past, the remedying of which has been made absolutely imperative by the situation of the country and the general desires of the people. The new Party leadership and the government under my direction are resolved to draw the fullest lessons from the tragic events. Soon after the restoration of order the National Assembly will be called. At that session I will submit an all-embracing and basic program of reform.

"This program will embrace all important problems of our national life. This program demands the reorganization of the government on the basis of the unification of broad democratic national forces represented by the reorganized Patri otic People's Front. For the realization of this program it is absolutely necessary to stop the fighting immediately, to restore order and peace, and to continue production...

"As Premier I wish to announce that the Hungarian government will begin talks with the Soviet Union concerning the relations between the Hungarian People's Republic and the Soviet Union, and, among other things, concerning the withdrawal of the Soviet forces stationed in Hungary. These talks will be carried out on the basis of equality and national independence between Communist Parties and Socialist countries. I am convinced that Hungarian-Soviet relations built on this basis will provide a firm groundwork for the future friendship between our peoples, for our national development and our Socialist future. The withdrawal of Soviet forces whose intervention in the fighting has been made necessary by the vital interests of our Socialist order will take place without delay after the restoration of peace and order.

"Toward all those who took up arms without the intention of overthrowing our people's democratic order and who immediately stop fighting and hand over their arms, toward all those youths and workers and soldiers who do this, the government will display far-reaching generosity in the spirit of reconciliation and understanding, and to them martial law will not apply. At the same time, in the interest of the working people who desire peace and order, and in defense of our democratic State, we will apply the full severity of the law to those who continue armed attacks, who continue to incite and plunder...

"I am filled with profound grief over every drop of blood shed during these tragic days by innocent victims among our working people. Let this tragic fight, this useless shedding of blood, be ended. Hungarians, friends, comrades, let us set out under the leadership of the Party along the road of peaceful and creative work, building a better, more beautiful Socialist future for our people."

1548 Gabor Tanczos, Secretary of the Petofi Club, reads an appeal on behalf of the club leadership:

"Friends, Hungarian young men and women, I speak to you in the name of the Petofi Club, the organization which has done so much in the past few months to fight for true democracy and for the elimination of Rakosi's shameful individual tyranny. We greatly appreciate the enthusiasm you have displayed in the past few days. We respect your true patriotism. We are quite certain you have nothing to do with certain stupid elements demonstrating their cruelty. We know that the mistakes committed by the wrong leadership of the now-relieved Erno Gero have filled many with bitterness and have led them to commit acts they did not originally intend.

"But now our leadership is good. Janos Kadar, who has suffered in the prisons of individual tyranny, has become First Party Secretary. Imre Nagy - . - heads the government. We must begin working and studying at last. No more precious human blood must be shed. We must prepare for great deeds, for the building of a truly democratic Hungary, Socialist in a Hungarian way and equal with any other nation. We must achieve a democratic school system, university reform, and improvement of students' hostels. But we cannot build, give accommodations, raise the standard of living and educate while the guns are roaring...." [14/15]

1830 "Rumors are circulating in the capital that many of those detained by the authorities in the course of armed clashes have been executed. The Ministry of Justice has ascertained that this is not true."

2300 "We will now describe the situation in Budapest. On Thursday morning work was resumed 'in most Budapest factories. Food shops have reopened and in the morning business was resumed in several markets. During the morning there were no particularly grave incidents. Toward midday the number and intensity of armed clashes increased and they continued late into the afternoon. These clashes resulted in deaths and injuries at several points in the capital...

"According to the latest information, the population has generally received with satisfaction the news of Erno Gero's dismissal, and the armed clashes decreased both in number and in intensity in the evening. Nevertheless, new incidents have taken place this evening at several points in the city. A curfew is in force but several groups are still gathered in the streets.

"During the morning an attempt was made to restore transportation, but in view of the incidents this plan was abandoned. In the afternoon stores closed, with the exception of food stores and pharmacies.

- According to information from the provinces, demonstrations have taken place in several provincial towns, but for the most part these were carried on in a relatively orderly fashion... [15/16]

Friday, October 26, 1956


0330 The Council of Ministers calls upon the people of Budapest to remain at home, not to go into the streets, except for those in essential industries who must have their identity cards with them.

0447 The Council of Ministers and the Minister of the Interior announce that gradual restoration of order makes it possible for the people of Budapest to buy their most necessary goods between 0900 in the morning and 1400 hrs. in the after-noon.

0552 The Minister of Internal Trade and Food Industry calls on all workers in food and transport industries to do all in their power to keep their facilities available from 0900 in the morning to 1400 in the afternoon so that the people may buy their necessities. . . . [16/17]

0900 The Minister of the Initerior warns that all who have firearms will be shot at by mopping-up troops. No one is to go out into the street after 1400 [GMT]. Traffic across the bridges is prohibited at any time.


0010 "Comrade Imre Nagy declared furthermore that no disturbances or provocations have taken place in Miskolc or Borsod County. He requests the people of Miskolc and Borsod Counties to see that this does not happen in the future either...

"The Committee of the workers' council of Greater Miskolc and the Party Committee, independently of the answer made by Comrade Imre Nagy . . . just read, have, on the basis of the resolution of the working people ... decided to maintain the demands they have submitted as long as they are not fulfilled in their essence.

"Our proclamation issued to the workers in connection with these demands, and which bears the Kossuth arms, consists of five points, as follows: 1. We demand that the Soviet Army leave the country immediately; 2. A new Hungarian government; 3. The right of workers to strike; 4. Complete amnesty for Hungarians who have participated in the revolution; 5. As long as these [demands] are not fulfilled the people of Borsod County and Greater Miskolc respectively will strike, with the exception of railways, mining, health services, public supply, electric power supply, and the press...

"Young workers and students: conduct yourself in a disciplined manner. Do not offer any reason for any interference by the authorities. We are able to assert our demands without bloodshed. In the attainment of their ends you can furnish the people of Budapest the greatest aid if you carry on the strike in a disciplined manner and if you do not demonstrate unnecessarily. Do not commit any provocation or any sabotage, because the only thing we would achieve by that would be the weakening of our common forces.

"Assist us and do not give way to ill-considered enthusiasm and student romanticism. We are not cowards but we cannot be irresponsible either. We understand your anxieties on account of the events in Budapest, but we are anxious for you too. The country needs not heroic dead but honest working citizens.

"In the interest of insuring the withdrawal of Soviet troops we have sent a telegram to the Council of Ministers. Have confidence in us! We have been elected by the workers and not by the government!

The workers' council furthermore requests leaders of enterprises and plants to elect their representatives to these councils with the utmost urgency, without regard for Party affiliation and with due regard to the confidence of the working people.

"Signed: the leadership of the workers' council of Borsod County and Greater Miskolc. [17/18]


1200 "It is evident now that changes of colossal importance have taken place in Hungary.

"The most important result was that during the last days a new government was formed under Imre Nagy's leadership. Yet that great victory required many sacrifices, ravages and deaths, sufferings of mothers and children, as well as fuel and food shortages. The difficulties were increased by the fact that looters and striplings shooting aimlessly got mixed up with the university students, young workers, and those who fought for political aims. They have already caused much harm and today represent the most important obstacle to settlement. They hinder peaceful work... We are requesting you, who still have weapons in your hand and endanger the lives of innocent people: lay down your rifles and pistols and no harm will befall you.

"To you, demonstrators with honest intentions and to you, members of the Army: disarm the troublemakers! Disarm those endangering the achievements you have already made. The very urgent present tasks demand that from you -for your mothers, younger brothers and sisters. It is really high time to deliver them from the difficulties of the state of siege, from starvation."

1306 "Armed young people, we appeal to you who are still fighting. Precious Hungarian blood is flowing on the streets of Budapest. Avoid this senseless bloodshed! The new government will consistently satisfy your demands. Young patriots, enough bloodshed. We Hungarians are so few. Let there be no more shedding of patriot's blood. Lay down your arms and the People's government will not put you before a summary tribunal. Do not be afraid to surrender to the armed forces in charge of maintaining order. Young patriots, come, we are waiting for you. The government guarantees that no harm will be done to you. [Signed:] Headquarters of the Armed Forces in charge of maintaining order."

1545 "Declaration of the Hungarian Workers' [Communist] Party addressed to the Hungarian people:

"Since the two world wars our country has not experienced days as tragic as the past few days. A fratricidal battle is raging in the capital of our country. The number of injured can be estimated to run into the thousands and the dead into the hundreds. An immediate end must be put to the bloodshed. To insure this, the Central Committee is resorting to the following measures:

"1. The Central Committee of the Hungarian Workers' Party addresses a proposal to the presidium of the National Council of the Patriotic People's Front to put a recommendation [18/19] before the Presidential Council of the People's Republic for the election of a new national government. This government shall have the mission of making good without fail the mistakes and crimes of the past and, relying on the entire nation, help to solve our people's every legitimate demand, and with our people's inexhaustible strength, create a free country of well-being, independence, and Socialist democracy. The Central Committee, led by Comrade Imre Nagy, is presenting recommendations regarding members of a government to be formed on the broadest national foundations.

"2. The new government shall begin negotiations with the Soviet government on the basis of independence, complete equality and noninterference in internal affairs to settle relations between our countries. As a first step toward this end, after the restoration of order, the Soviet troops will immediately return to their bases. Complete equality between Hungary and the Soviet Union corresponds with the interests of both countries, for only on that basis can a truly fraternal, unbreakable Hungarian-Soviet friendship be built. It is on that basis that relations between Poland and the Soviet Union are now being reshaped.

"3. The Central Committee deems correct the election of workers' councils in the factories through the intermediary of the trade union organs. To satisfy the legitimate material demands of the working class, wage increases must be implemented within the limits of our material possibilities; maximum efforts must be made in the first place for those in the lower-paid brackets.

"4. The government shall grant an amnesty to all those who have taken part in the armed battles, with the sole provision that they lay down their arms immediately, but by 2100 hrs [GMT] at the latest.

"5. The Central Committee and the government leave no room for doubt regarding their stand on the basis of Socialist democracy, but at the same time they are firmly resolved to defend the achievements of our People's Democracy, and not to give up any [essential part] of it. Their program is suitable as a unifled rallying point of every honest patriot. The Central Committee is not oblivious to the fact that our People's Democracy still has bitter and desperate enemies and appeals to Communists, Hungarian workers -and primarily the workers- the armed forces, former partisans, the firm protectors of the people's power, with the warning that those who take up arms against the State power of our People's Republic and fail to lay down arms within the fixed time limit, shall be annihilated without mercy.

"6. Immediately after order has been restored, we shall set about elaborating all the changes to be realized in our people's economy, farm policy, People's Front policy, our Party's leadership, and other activities, so that the principles of Socialist democracy may be fully enforced.

"Through consultation with all the people we shall build up and realize the great national program of a democratic, Socialist, independent and sovereign Hungary. Let the nation's unity and reconciliation replace the tragic era of murderous fratricide! Let the wounds heal which we have inflicted upon ourselves! If we want to live, we must begin a new life. It is up to us alone to achieve - after the horrible tribulations- internal peace, life without fear, productive work that results in prosperity and freedom, the rule of law and justice in our country, and a democratic Socialist Hungary, built on new foundations.

"[Signed] The Central Committee of the Hungarian Workers' Party, Budapest, October 26, 1956 [19/22]

1904 "In the spirit of appeasement, the government is extending its amnesty decree to all persons who surrender their arms before October 26, 2100 hrs...

2042 "Another 18 minutes and the time limit set by the Central Committee and the Presidential Council for the laymg down of arms will expire. Another 18 minutes and we shall put an end to the bloodshed in Budapest. We can end this fratricidal fight. The fight which the young have begun, we may safely claim, has triumphed. Further bloodshed would be senseless.

"An independent Hungary, the further development of democracy, the punishment of the guilty, and the formation of a government under Imre Nagy were the objectives for which young people marched in the street processions. Most young people took up arms for these objectives. These demands have been fulfilled, as is evident from the Central Committee's declaration published earlier.

"There may be some people who think that the amnesty declaration is a sign of weakness on the part of the government. No, this is out of the question. We are not in the habit of using threats and we do not approve of a policy of intimidation, but we must declare that those who do not yield to conciliatory words and for whom the amnesty decree is not enough will come up against the force concentrated in the hands of the government.

"Let the bloodshed come to an end! Let us cease this fight! This is our supreme endeavor. This is the interest of all of us. There are only 16 minutes to go. Lay down your arms!"

2050 "In the streets of Budapest the surrender of arms is in progress. Since a great many misled youths who wish to surrender their arms are unaware of the precise methods by which the arms should be surrendered, we announce the following for their information:

"After a white flag has been raised, arms and ammunition may be handed over to the nearest military unit or patrol. If there are no such units or patrols in the vicinity, the arms and ammunition should be deposited in doorways in the streets. Those who deposit arms may pass on without hindrance...

Saturday, October 27, 1956


0515 "Dear Listeners, here is an appeal from the Ministry of the Interior:

As a result of the amnesty granted by the government, the majority of the fighters laid down their arms last night and the mopping up of elements provoking armed fights in Budapest is continuing successfully. But some failed to realize the seriousness of the situation, even after the Party and government amnesty. Therefore, further military operations are necessary. In order to be able to free the people of Budapest from the hardship they may suffer in connection with the mopping up, we call upon the people of Budapest not to leave their dwellings until further notice. We also call upon tenants committees, self-defense committees, and janitors to help in the implementation of our appeal... [22/23]

0600 "Enough bloodshed! Enough ransacked streets! We would love to know whether our children, our relatives are still alive. We would love to be together again. . . . We would love to enjoy life again; we would like not to fear death any longer. . . . Life which will develop in Hungary after order has been restored will be more beautiful, more human, more Hungarian, than ever before.

The realization of these plans is guaranteed by the new government, which is national and democratic, and which is led by Imre Nagy. . . . Those who accept the new Hungarian democratic government will cease fighting immediately, but those who continue fighting, who still choose the means of bloodshed, do not want the democratic revival of the country, but support the return of the landlords, the bankers, of the Eszterhazys and of the Weiss Manfreds(6)...

0833 "We apologize to our dear listeners for the break in our transmission from 0827 to 0831 hours because of technical difficulties. We will now read an appeal:

"To all house committees: "The house committee and the house guard and all inhabitants of the house should prevent snipers from hiding in the houses and on the roofs for the mopping-up operations which are being carried on against them would endanger the lives of the inhabitants. In many places around houses, under doors or perhaps inside, weapons may have been left behind. House committees should report this immediately to the nearest Army or police station.

"Because of difficulties in transmitting news, rumors have been spreading. House committees, Communists, and all inhabitants of houses, should do all they can to suppress these rumors, and do everything to reassure the people and restore peace and order.

"Signed: Military Command."

0900 The news reports that resistance has been broken except for "certain isolated groups."

"The Council of Budapest has asked us to broadcast the following:

"Workers of the Budapest Public Works, workers in the food and in the retail industry. It is the fourth day that a bloody battle has raged in the streets of Budapest. The capital's supplies are sufficient. The public works employees have continued their work during the past days, in many cases at the risk of their lives, to assure water, gas and electricity to the population of the capital. The people of the capital feel a deep gratitude to those bakery workers who, by their heroism, have gone to their places of work, often amid the greatest danger to their lives, to bake the bread necessary for the public supply.

"The same refers to workers in the milk industry, the retail workers, and the trans-port workers. The retail food distributors have solved an almost impossible problem when, in the short time at their disposal, they managed to satisfy tlie essential demands of the people. In the name of the capital's population we thank all the workers ...

1100 "The strength of groups of wreckers active in Budapest has been broken. By 2100 [GMT] last night, large quantities of arms had been surrendered to Army formations. Many have thrown away their arms and ceased fighting. By this morning only three counterrevolutionary centers remained. Their liquidation is in progress. Those insurgents who laid down their arms by 2100 last night were allowed to go home without delay. The streets of Budapest are being cleared by Army troops in cooperation with units of the Soviet Army, and weapons which have been thrown away are being collected.

"Curfew will continue until order is completely restored. Civilians in Budapest and of several country towns have called our attention to the fact that armed groups in the capital and in the countryside are distributing leaflets which con tam declarations made in the name of the government and in the name of other organs, which are causing confusion. They give us permission to state that these leaflets are falsifications. The people should not believe the contents of any leaflet which is not in accordance with the spirit of Comrade Imre Nagy's statements and the resolutions of the Central Committee... [23/24]

1150 "The President of the Council of Ministers [Imre Nagy] has ordered creation of a governmental committee for food supply. This committee, the head of which will be Zoltan Vas, will function for a transitional period, and will guarantee the food supply of the population.

"Signed: Imre Nagy...

1406 "Appointed by the Presidential Council, I have today taken over the post of Minister of Defense. I expect every member of the Army to support me in my responsible and difficult task and to carry out my orders without fail. I herewith order: 1. Armed units to continue without respite to liquidate armed resistance nests and to restore order; 2. Units on alert to increase their vigilance and to prepare to execute their battle tasks; 3. Orders issued so far to remain in force.

"Signed: Lt. General Janza, Minister of Defense."

1537 "The Minister of the Interior has issued the following order: Budapest -Appointed by the Presidential Council, I have taken over the direction of the Ministry of the Interior today. I expect every employee of the various organs of the Ministry to do his work with the same exemplary devotion to duty as hitherto.

"Signed: Ferenc Munnich, Minister of the Interior."

1550 "The Government of the Polish People's Republic has sent great quantities of medicine to help the Hungarian people. Included in the consignment there is a great quantity of blood plasma, dextrose and bandages, as well as various other important pharmaceutical articles...

1610 "All Budapest telephone centers are in operation, although not at full capacity. No further damage has been [24/25] caused to the telephone cables or centers. As was announced by the Postmaster General, although there may be some technical breakdowns in some telephone centers, these will gradually be repaired.


1440 "For two days the city of Miskolc has been under the leadership of the workers' council and the students' parliament. The workers' council has taken over control of the garrison and the police. The demands of the workers' council and of the students have been made publicly known by radio and press -the twenty-one points of the workers' councils as well as the universities' eleven points. As you know, the county strike committee has also called on all plants in the county to strike, with the exception of mail, transport, communications, food supplies, health services and power plants."

1445 "The government still does not comply with our demands, and especially with our most important demand that Soviet troops be withdrawn at once. In yesterday's message the government said, 'Let order be restored and Soviet troops will withdraw to their bases.' The workers of Borsod County adhere to the stand they have taken and demand immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops. Soviet troops shall stop military operations at once and shall immediately begin withdrawing from our country. Only after this will there be order in the country. Only after this will Borsod County stop the strike. The entire working class of Borsod County sticks as faithfully to the primary demand as it did two days ago...

1453 "Dear Hungarian Premier [Nagy]. We inform you that yesterday the workers' council took power in Borsod County in every respect. The Army and police are under its control. Soviet troops are showing a neutral attitude and have not interfered in our affairs. The workers' council adopts as its own all your demands and stands for amnesty for all Hungarians who have participated in the revolution. Stalinist provocateurs who yesterday shot into the people have been reached by the just punishment of the people.

"Dear fighting Hungarian brothers. We are supporting your demands. We are fighting for the immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops. We have contacted the Russian command . . . about this matter so that they can discuss the matter with their superior command at Moscow and leave the country at once. In the meantime, the Soviet Army is showing a passive attitude...

"Signed: the Workers' Council of Borso(l County." [25/26]


2000 "In Budapest the strength of armed groups has been broken ...

2015 "The Ministry of Defense has issued the following communique:

"The town council of Baja called the Ministry of Defense this afternoon and asked for information about the following rumor: 'Misleading rumors have spread in Baja about Soviet troops being engaged in large-scale military operations in Budapest. Are these rumors true?

"The Minister of Defense informs the inquirers that this rumor is not true. The bulk of the armed groups was liquidated by this morning. Military action [is now] confined only to a few nests. It is true that Soviet troops helped, and are helping, greatly in liquidating groups which have attacked the workers' power. In many places, however, insurgents trapped in larger buildings asked if they might lay down their arms before the Hungarian People's Army units. This request has been fulfilled.

"As military activities subside, the formations of the Hungarian Army are gradually taking over everywhere the task of maintaining order. If those few [armed groups] still resisting do not lay down their arms after being summoned by Hungarian Army units to do so, they will be completely liquidated."

2218 "The Minister of the Interior informs the people that the curfew will remain in force tomorrow, October 28. However, the population will be given an opportunity to procure the most necessary foodstuffs. The ban on assembly will also be enforced during this time ...


1910 "We shall give a short evaluation of today's events. The just fight of the people is progressing with long strides toward complete victory. . . . Yesterday, we were alone in broadcasting until the evening . . . when the people of Magyarovar won the radio station and Radio Mosonmagyarovar joined us. Thus we had two powerful radio stations from which to broadcast for Radio Free Gyor . . . in the late afternoon we warmly welcomed the workers of the powerful Szombathely radio station who this afternoon joined us in transmitting our programs. We can therefore tell our listeners this evening that Radio Free Gyor is transmitting, so to speak, to almost the entire Dunantul [Western Hungary]: to Gyor, Komarom, Vas, and also Zala counties. We inform more than half the Dunantul about the situation and the achievements of the people's true fight. We can assume that in other Hungarian towns the situation today is similar. The people [26/27] have taken the direction of our future fate in-to their own hands....

"We may surely say that there too [Budapest] the true battle of the nation will soon be won. Among the outstanding events of the day is the change in the behavior and the mood of Soviet troops all over the country. The Soviet soldiers who saw that here [in Gyor] it is a question of a just fight for freedom by the people, declared: 'Do not hurt us and we shall not hurt you. We shall be glad to be able to return home at last.'"


2245 "The Hungarian people have lost confidence in some men in Imre Nagy's government. Soviet troops should stop fighting as soon as possible and leave Hungary. The people of Budapest want to shake off the Rakosi spirit.

"Workers, students, and soldiers, band together against the bad memories of recent times. The Gero-Rakosi line completely lost the people's confidence and, seeing that they were no longer the masters of the situation, they called in Soviet troops. Blood has run in rivers and the bitterness of the people turned into a revolutionary rage. Should Russia again fling Hungarian liberty in the mud as it did in 1848?

"Hungarians, patriots, in the past few days something has been born which did not exist before. No, a thousand times no, say Miskolc, Pecs, Gyor and all Borsod County. Hungarians, freedom has not been lost. Today Imre Nagy has the people's confidence. But is this enough? Guns are still shooting in Budapest. Can it be our wish that Soviet troops should take the arms from our freedom fighters? Hungarians do not want this to happen. The new government should not lean on foreign arms. Rather it should lean on the people; there is no need for foreign weapons.

"Hungarians do not want to kill Hungarians. The people have spoken their judgment with arms. Soviet troops should be sent home and no more Hungarian blood shed in Budapest. Imre Nagy should have the courage to get rid of those politicians who can only lean on weapons used for suppression of the people. No more Hungarian blood should be shed in this country. Soviet troops should leave without delay. Freedom, order and independence for this country." [27/28]

Sunday, October 28, 1956


0400 Report from the Eighth District:

"A temporary national committee has been formed. It has started to organize a National Guard for maintaining order. Its members are being recruited from the Hungarian Army, the police, the workers, and the young workers. Workers' councils have been formed in the major plants of the district. They have already started work. The workers of the Kelenfoeld power station have done everything they can do to keep the capital supplied with electric current. They were unable to leave their place of work for three days and continued working in spite of the fact that they were without food."

Appeal by the chairman of the government Commission for Food Supplies, the Minister of Food Industry and the Minister of Produce Collection to all workers of the bakeries, the meat industry, and the dairies to go to their places of work this morning. Directions to employees of the Kozert [State food shops], the delicatessen shops, the tobacconists, the cooperative shops, and the restaurants to go to their places of work and start work immediately after free movement in the streets is allowed in the morning.

0620 "Budapest was quiet yesterday and last night, apart from the activity of a few armed groups. At the Moscow Square point of fighting the Army negotiators have concluded a cease-fire agreement with the rebels after several preliminary talks last night. Concerning the conditions of laying down arms, the rebels asked for time to consider until 0600 [GMT].

"In spite of the truce . . . the insurgents fired on Soviet patrols during the night. . . . Eight Soviet soldiers were wounded. In accordance with the truce agreement the Soviet soldiers did not return the fire."

1000 "Attention! Attention! A message to the resistants in the Kilian Barracks(7) and Corvin District [near the barracks]. This message is sent by two negotiators. We have transmitted your answer to the Commanders of the Soviet and Hungarian troops. They consider your conditions unacceptable. In their opinion the new Hungarian [28/29] government, the list of which you read in the copy of Szabad Nep we left in your hands, represents the interests of the whole Hungarian people and will fulfill the most important demands that are contained by the 16 Points. This is also our conviction.

"Dear friends. You know us well, one of us was your physician, and we ask you with the good faith you always experienced on our part to believe us . . . and take our advice. . . . You will be granted full amnesty after laying down your weapons and you will then freely return to your homes.

"Dear friends. We request you to give a second thought to this appeal. Think of your families and of the civilians living in the houses across your line of resistance and listen to common sense.

"The deadline for the laying down of weapons will be transmitted by a loudspeaker atop a car. We request you to consider once more this appeal which was prompted by profound affection."

1003 Szabad Nep editorial:

"We do not agree with those who summarily dismiss the events of the past few days as a counterrevolutionary Fascist attempt at a coup d'etat. . . . We must realize that a great national democratic movement has developed in our country...

This movement expressed the workers' claim to become genuine masters of the factories. This movement expressed the human claim of the peasantry to be freed from constant uncertainty of existence and unwarranted vexations, and to be able to live their lives as individual or collectivized peasants as they wish.

"The struggle waged by Communist and non-Party intellectuals for the freedom of constructive work and the moral purity of our system has strengthened this movement. It was love of country which gave this people's movement its greatest strength and fervor and rendered it willing to face even death.

"The demand for the equality and independence of. the country is as all-embracing as the mother tongue we speak. It is an eternal shame that there were Communists in leading positions who did not understand the language of their own people...

"This passion which carries away a whole nation only once in a century -this passion carried away Budapest's university and working class youth during the demonstrations on October 23.... We must find out what factors and people are responsible for the fact that this mighty patriotic demonstration was soiled by blood and became the beginning of the most horrible fratricidal war.

"Let us examine a few facts which may be helpful in assessing the situation. On October 23, 150,000 to 200,000 Budapest youths, joined by a large number of older people, demonstrated for the fulfillment of just, democratic, and national demands. The demonstrators demanded among other things the revision of Soviet-Hungarian relations and their settlement on a basis of complete equality. Dissonant voices mixed with the demonstrators... These voices went beyond the limits of the struggle waged for Socialist democracy.

"People were looking forward with great expectations to Erno Gero's radio address Tuesday night. The address, however, was a grave disappointment because it proved that, first, a number of the leaders at that time were unable and unwilling to understand the essential character of the demonstration; second, they could not and did not want to draw the proper concrete conclusions from the demonstration. By that time the atmosphere in the street was tense to the breaking point. Armed fighting started in various places in the city....

"It is important to point out that demonstrators appeared before public buildings shouting such slogans as 'We want independence and freedom; we are not Fascists.' It is also true that looting, on a fairly small scale, was done only by those bad ..... elements who had wormed their way into the demonstrators' ranks... n many places the articles were left untouched behind the broken shop windows.

"All this shows that it cannot be said that after the outbreak of the armed conflict, counterrevolutionaries fought on one side and units loyal to the regime on the other. The truth is that among the fighting insurgents there were in the beginning a very large number of honest patriots, including Communists...

"The resolution which confirmed Erno Gero in his post of First Secretary poured oil on the fire, but Imre Nagy's statement, Erno Gero's dismissal, and the appointment of Janos Kadar as First Secretary, the declaration of the newly formed Central Committee and the inclusion of Zoltan Tildy, Bela Kovacs, Gyorgy Lukacs, and Antal Babits, met with the approval of a large part of the masses. . . . The armed conflict nonetheless continued, but on a lesser and subsiding scale, after Thursday afternoon. . . . One of the characteristics of the changed situation was the fact that the workers began to form workers' councils. They armed workers and militiamen who with the government forces took part in restoring order. We would, however, be distorting truth if we kept silent about the fact that bad elements also took part in the demonstration from the very beginning. These committed armed excesses, especially after the fighting started, and stood up against our People's Democracy. . . . One of the proofs is that ... a number of former Horthyite officers were captured.

...In order to avoid bloodshed on a larger scale, we appeal with sober and calm words . . . to those misled and intoxicated elements who are still fighting, to cut themselves off from the counter-revolutionaries and lay down their arms...

...This is the 12th hour for them to turn back from the road leading to counterrevolution. In Budapest the fighting is nearing its end. We must create order and calm. Every possibility is at hand for this, for the whole people desires it."

1100 Report on the food supply of Budapest: "The 228 bakeries in Budapest are all fully operating; as many as 150 trucks and several horse-drawn carts are carrying bread to all parts of the capital; the bakeries have supplies of flour and fuel for several weeks. The dairies are also [29/30] operating." Further reports that the milk, butter, cheese, meat, fat and tobacco supplies are also satisfactory. [30/31]


0930 Report that a large shipment had arrived the previous day from the International Red Cross. A shipment of bandages and blood plasma from the United States was also received...


1205 "In order to stop further bloodshed and ensure peaceful progress, the government of the Hungarian People's Republic has ordered a general and immediate cease-fire. It instructs the armed forces to fire only if attacked."

1325 "The true reason for the dramatic events of late are the eight years of Stalinism in Hungary, the unrestricted raging of despotism which was then followed by relief. We said very often that in 1945 we had a chance to start real construction, to build up a free Hungary. Today we see clearly that we failed to make use of the chance which was offered to us . . . or, more accurately, we were not permitted to use the chance offered to us by fate. With a few exceptions nobody denies today that the great trouble and sorrow we had to endure was not entirely in vain, we also profited from the past eight years. So -one may ask- what was the actual reason for the warfare of the past days in Budapest? Delay, temporizing. The failure to understand the real, the actual situation as it was, the disregarding of the will of the people... [31/32]


1455 "The Szombathely unit of the Hungarian Writers' Union sends enthusiastic patriotic greetings to the Revolutionary Council and the workers' councils. It regards their problems as its own, since they also bear the writers' old desires and wishes. The writers also demand from the government that Soviet troops be recalled from Hungary and cessation of the compulsory teaching of Russian.

"Nothing can halt the victory of our cause now. Therefore, let the superfluous bloodshed end."

Report on the situation in Szombathely. Announcements that the workers of the [railway-] car repair shop have decided to continue striking until the Russians leave Hungary; that two political prisoners were freed from the local jail and handed over to the repair workshop, which is providing them with full board; that the director of the oil refinery has been removed and the production personnel placed under the authority of the workers' council; that the workers will not produce any oil because they do not want Soviet tanks to be supplied with it....

1643 "Headed by T. Andras, a miner, the miners of Balinka [new coal town in Veszprem County west of Budapest] sent a delegation of seven to Radio Free Gyor.

...Their first demand is that Imre Nagy call on the Russian troops to begin their withdrawal from Hungary carrying white flags. . . . How do the miners regard the future? The future social system of Hungary should be decided by free elections. They do not object to the Communist Party standing with the other parties; the people will decide in which party it will put its confidence. The delegation, which represents 30,000 miners, will accept a government list agreed upon by the insurgents and in this case they would respect the cease-fire appeal. They demand that Imre Nagy give a guarantee that he is able and willing to lead the country out of the abyss.

"Until these demands are met the miners of Balinka and its district are not prepared to produce a single spadeful of coal...

"At the Balinka station 30 wagonloads of coal are standing ready and the moment a peace under the stated conditions is signed, this coal can be sent immediately to factories, plants and to the population which has suffered so many shortages. In case of such a peace the miners will immediately commence work and they promise that this work will be at a speed never achieved in any kind of [Socialist] competition. The miners are for order and discipline. They do not approve of irresponsible elements who wish to disrunt order. They trust in the soldiers who have joined us."

Message from the Army garrison in Gyor:

"Workers of Gyor: Dear friends: We, the soldiers of the Gyor garrison, have backed your justified demands. We support them and are ready to give our lives for them. . . . Fight with us for an independent Hungary. Please support our call."

"The National Council of Komarom informs Hegyeshalom that the road is clear until Esztergom. According to information from Hegyeshalom, the Army and the members of the National Council are going back and forth to Vienna arranging for medical supplies. We call on everyone to keep the road clear for trucks and cars bringing relief."


1740 "Attention! Attention! We have a message from the workers' councils and student parliament of Borsod County. An appeal to Hungarian workers' councils and freedom fighters! Debrecen, Szeged, Hatvan, Szekesfehervar, Pecs, Szombathely, Gyor, Mosonmagyarovar, Szolnok, Nyiregyhaza and all workers' councils, freedom fighters and youth of the country!

"In the course of our several days' fight for freedom the joint demands of the entire country are slowly beginning to take shape. Therefore, we workers, students and armed forces under the leadership of the workers' council and student parliament of Miskolc submit the following proposal:

"1. We demand a new provisional government, one truly democratic, sovereign and independent, fighting for a free and Socialist Hungary, excluding all ministers who served in the Rakosi regime.

"2. Such a government can only be created through general and free elections: Since under the present conditions we cannot realize this, we propose that Imre Nagy form a provisional government containing only the most essential ministries. Ministries of related branches shall be combined. In the present situation there is absolutely no need for 22 ministries and three Deputy Premiers.

"3. The first act of this new independent provisional government, based on a coalition of the Hungarian Workers' [Communist] Party and the Patriotic People's Front, shall be the immediate recall of Soviet troops from our country, not to their bases but to their Fatherland, the Soviet Union.

"4. The new government shall include in its program, and carry out, the demands of all workers' councils and student parliaments of the country. These demands have already been made known in the press everywhere.

"5. The new State power shall have only two kinds of armed forces -the police and the regular Army. The State Security Authority [AVO] is to be abolished.

"6. The abolition of martial law, and full amnesty after the withdrawal of Soviet troops for all freedom fighters and all patriots who have participated in the uprising in any way. [32/33]

"7. General elections to be held within two months with the participation of several parties.

"Let us adopt a common position based on the above. This position appears so far to be shared by all and is by no means the same as that of the present government, which is relying on a foreign power...

"Let us seek every means of contact with one another in the interest of presenting our opinions, especially by means of radio.

"Pecs, Gyor, Mosonmagyarovar, Miskolc, Debrecen and Nyiregyhaza and others are by now in possession of radio stations. Therefore it is possible to create adequate radio contacts. We suggest contact on 42 and 43 meters shortwave. Miskolc will signal on these wavelengths on every second, even-numbered hour.

"All of you, call on the Soviet troops, in Russian too, not to fight for the suppression of the Hungarian people's legitimate struggle for freedom. We want to regard the Soviet Union as our friend but we want to be independent ourselves. We do not want to be at war with them.

"The troops of the Soviet Union were called into our Fatherland by the oppressor of the country, Gero, a Rakosi follower, with the lie that they must fight against counterrevolutionary bands, fascist mobs and common looters. By now they themselves and the entire world know that this is not true. For this reason we demand that Gero and his accomplices be called to account."

Report that in the afternoon talks had been conducted between the workers' council in Nyiregyhaza and leaders of Soviet military units, with the result that the Russian units promised to withdraw from Nyiregyhaza and not to station them. selves in the town.


1800 Speech by Premier Imre Nagy:

"During the course of the past few days bloody events have taken place with tragic rapidity. . . . During the course of one thousand years of history, destiny was not sparing in scourging our people and nation. But such a thing has never before afflicted our country.

"The government rejects the view of the formidable popular movement as a counter-revolution. Of course . . . this movement was exploited by criminal and reactionary, counter-revolutionary elements . . with the aim of overthrowing the people's democratic regime.

"But it is also indisputable that in this movement a great national and democratic movement, embracing and unifying all our people, has developed.... The grave crimes committed during the historic period just past released this great movement...

"The situation was further aggravated by the fact that, up to the very last, the leadership did not decide to break finally with its old and criminal policy. It is this above all which led us to this tragic fratricidal fight in which so many patriots died on both sides...

"The [new] government wishes to rest in the first place on the support of the fighting Hungarian working class, but also of course on the entire working population of Hungary. We [will] work out a vast program . . . to give satisfaction to the old and just demands of the workers: revision of norms and salaries, a rise in the lowest salaries and pensions . . . and the implementation of higher family allowances.

"To help resolve the housing crisis, the government will support all State, cooperative, and private enterprise for construction. The government welcomes the initiative taken by workers for the extension of democracy in their enterprises, and approves the constitution of workers' councils. The government will firmly put an end to the serious illegalities committed in the collective farm movement and the division of land. . . . The government will strongly support young workers, peasants and students, giving them the means of using their initiative in the framework of a cleaner public life. . . . The government supports those new organs of democratic self-government which the people have started and will strive to find a place for them in the administrative machinery. . . . New armed forces will be formed from units of the Army, of the police, and of the armed workers' and youth groups.

"The Hungarian government has come to an agreement with the Soviet government whereby Soviet forces shall withdraw immediately from Budapest and, simultaneously with the formation of our new Army, shall evacuate the city. The Hungarian government has started negotiations to settle relations between the Hungarian People's Republic and the Soviet Union with regard to the withdrawal of Soviet forces stationed in Hungary. All this is in the spirit of Soviet-Hungarian friendship and the principle of the mutual equality and national independence of Socialist countries.

"After the re-establishment of order we shall organize a new and single State police force and we shall dissolve the organs of State security. No one who took part in the armed fighting need fear reprisals.

"The government shafl propose to the National Assembly that the emblem of Kossuth shall again appear on our flags and that March 15 shall again be a national holiday... [33/34]

2010 "The new national government held its first Cabinet meeting this afternoon. Imre Nagy presided in the chair. Apart from the Council of Ministers, present were Istvan Dobi and Sandor Ronai. The Cabinet discussed the statement made by Imre Nagy on the political situation and approved the government's statement which he put forward.

"The Cabinet heard reports . . . concerning the organization of public supplies. There are temporary difficulties with regard to milk supplies. The Cabinet authorized the Committee of Public Supplies to take steps regarding supplies for children, schools, and hospitals.

"The Cabinet discussed the question of making good the damage caused by the armed conflict. It passed a decision about expediting the manufacture of glass in the country and about the import of window glass from abroad to replace windows broken during the armed conflict.

"At the suggestion of Zoltan Tildy, the Cabinet instructed the Minister of Agriculture to suspend the implementation of commassation(8) and to make a proposal to revise the commassation decree.'

"In consideration of the just requests of small craftsmen, the Cabinet made a decision about the revision of the supply of raw materials for them. The Cabinet appointed a commission to revise the system of agricultural produce collection.

"The Cabinet instructed the Minister of Education to withdraw from circulation without delay all history textbooks. In other textbooks all passages impregnated with the spirit of the cult of personality [of Communist leader Matyas Rakosi]must be rectified by the teachers in the course of study.

"The Foreign Minister and the chairman of the Public Supply Committee announced that material aid had been of fered to Hungary by the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, the United States, Austria, several other States, and the Red Cross. The Cabinet gratefully accepted the offered aid.


2025 Comment on Imre Nagy's speech over Radio Budapest. Quoting extensively from Nagy's speech, the commentary refers to Nagy's statement that very many patriots have fallen on both sides, and says that this is mistaken "because in the opinion of the people of Borsod County those students and workers who peacefully demonstrated for their legitimate demands were indeed Hungarian patriots, but it is an outrage to say this about the armed bandits of the security police who fired on the people. This is a serious defect in Nagy's speech.

"The government promises that it will rest on the strength and will of the people. The strength of the people will support the government only if it acts immediately to put into effect the just demands of the people."

Quoting Nagy's cease-fire order and his request for the laying down of arms, the commentary says that in Borsod County only those maintaining order and security carry arms, "and they will keep their arms as long as they are needed for this purpose. They interpret the cease-fire as meaning that they will answer shot for shot." The commentary then quotes Nagy's

statement on agreement with the Soviet command on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Budapest.

"We are only partially satisfied with this report because the people of Borsod County want not only the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Budapest but that they withdraw completely from Hungarian territory and go home. We find it regrettable that Nagy mentioned only Budapest. Talks on the complete withdrawal of Soviet troops are to start only later. Nagy said that they are to be conducted in the spirit of Hungarian.Soviet friendship. We entirely agree with the idea of Hungarian-Soviet friendship, but it is our opinion that these talks should have been started long ago.

"The workers' council fully agrees with abolition of the State security forces. In many respects the workers of Borsod County approved of the speech but they had some reservations. We have confidence in Imre Nagy. We stand behind him. We support him with all our force, hoping, however, that he will very soon make his promises concrete with action... [34/36]

Monday, October 29, 1956


1400 "The executive committee of the Budapest City Council has decided to rename Stalin Street the Street of Hungarian Youth; from now on Stalin Bridge will be called Arpad Bridge and Stalin Square will be called Gyorgy Dozsa Square."

"Fuel transportation began this morning. Some 300 or 400 loads of fuel are now at the disposal of the population... Food workers made superhuman efforts during the past few days to insure food supplies to Budapest. Some 260 trucks are delivering foodstuffs to various parts of

Budapest. . . . The delivery of mail wa resumed in the capital this morning."

"The National Trade Union Counci has welcomed the proposal made by young workers to form their own organization.

The committee establishing the new Militant Organization of Young Workers and Working Youth issues a communiqué urging young workers, technicians and intellectuals to join and help elect leaders "who know all our desires, problems and dreams and who are ready to fight with us for their realization...

1617 "In accordance with an agreement reached with leaders of the Budapest resistance groups, the insurgents are beginning to hand over their arms to Hungarian troops relieving Soviet units. Within 24 hours after they hand over their arms, the withdrawal of Soviet units from Budapest will begin."


1215 "Attention Szombathely railway-men! Attention postal workers... Today we are informed .. . . that Soviet units have begun to leave the capital and are marching to . . . Lake Balaton ...towards their military base." [36/37]

1238 "A four-member delegation representing professors and students [in Sopron] has arrived in Gyor to present its demands. . . . Many of the demands of the Sopron students agree with the demands made by the trade unions and the Petofi Club . . . [but] they state that they do not agree with the present composition of parliament and the government ... and do not believe them suitable [organs] for drawing up a new electoral law. They demand that a new parliament be formed from representatives of town and village national councils... They demand a revision of our relations to the Soviet Union and full compensation for damages caused by our dependence on the Soviet Union... They do not agree with Imre Nagy's address yesterday in which he announced that the security police would be disbanded. They demand from the government an announcement that the security police has already been dissolved


1300 The workers' council of Borsod County calls on all persons who possess weapons and who are not members of the National Guard to report to the Miskoic Bocskay Military Establishment and to enlist. "Those who do not want to participate ... must turn in their weapons.

1300 "Many of you have asked about the time of the funeral for those innocent students and Miskolc citizens who were massacred by security police gangs. We wish to inform you that today funerals are taking place from 1100-1500 hrs. Tomorrow funerals will begin at 1400...

1340 "Attention Attention! Debrecen hospital! Munich has heard the broadcast asking for iron lungs. Munich is doing its utmost to forward . . . the lungs from Germany."

1420 "Since October 26th, there has been no end to funerals... Rakosi! Gero! Other oppressors of the people! [37/38] Can you see the gravestones? . . . Answer! Because the people will find you wherever you are hiding. . . . We shall not be annihilated. . . . We have swept back the dirty tide . . . which has brought you to the surface . . . and here, at the graves of Hungarian martyrs, we declare firmly that the day of liberty has come...


1905 "In the morning factories started work and shops were reopened [but] certain irresponsible elements and armed groups are threatening the restoration of normalcy and peace. Whoever continues to kindle the fire of a civil war, whoever has not had enough Hungarian bloodshed and whoever wants the roar of weapons instead of a cease-fire is harming the working class and the people and intends the overthrow of the people's democratic power. The government of Imre Nagy is a government of peace, creative work and national independence. Workers, compatriots, Communists, do not permit anyone to raise his arm against the power of the working class... 2030 Attention, attention. Tonight units of the Hungarian People's Army beegan to replace Soviet troops in the Eighth District of Budapest and they will insure the withdrawal of Soviet troops. At dawn Soviet troops will evacuate the territory agreed upon with the headquarters of the resistance; at 2000 [GMT] the insurgents will lay down their arms. The replacement and undisturbed withdrawal of Soviet troops are the prerequisites for the evacuation of Soviet troops from the capital. . . . I call upon all true patriots to support the Hungarian People's Army in carrying out this task suc cessfully and to the satisfaction of the population of Budapest and the whole country... Lt. Gen. Karoly Janza. Minister of Defense...


1800 "Russian troops have begun their withdrawal from Budapest. We call on the population and on freedom fighters to refrain from attacking them, for by doing so they will only delay peaceful settlement...

"The Debrecen hospital has made a request to the free world for some kind of medicine but it was not possible to hear what kind they wanted." [38/39]

Tuesday, October 30, 1956


0533 "The Ministry of the Interior states that at dawn there was peace all over the country. Although there still was some sporadic fighting, there were no riots or armed clashes. . . . Several foreign planes are expected to arrive in Budapest with blood plasma, medicines and foodstuffs."

0630 "As reported earlier, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Budapest ... is in progress. Units of the Hungarian Army, the police, armed workers and youth are taking over the job of maintaining order. At 0900 all fighting must cease and armed groups still resisting shall then participate in restoring peace and order. We will continue to inform you ... about the withdrawal of Soviet roops ...

1132 Announcement by the National Free Organization of Independent Craftsmen representing 90,000 artisans that the new government will "create conditions for fulfilling the demands of independent craftsmen."

"The organization has been reassured that two of the most urgent demands will be satisfied immediately- artisans' taxes will be reduced and they will receive the raw material necessary for continuing their work. Other demands will be discussed shortly by the government. These include . . . creation of a unified tax system, abolition of the tax artisans have to pay for employees, introduction of a tax allowance for children, tax exemptions for artisans over 65 who work without employees, simplification of the price system, and modification of laws unfair to craftsmen, as well as extension of sickness and old age insurance to cover every artisan."


0820 Statement that the Gyor County National Council's appeal for a general strike does not apply to electricity, water and gas workers, or to workers in the food [39/40] industries or industries directly concerned with production of consumer goods. [40/41]


1000 "The Hungarian people ask the UN to refuse to receive Peter Kos, who is a traitor to his country, and not to listen to the declarations he delivers in the name of the former and present Hungarian governments. The Hungarian people ask the UN to intervene immediately in the interest of Hungary. . . . The Hungarian people also ask the UN to entrust Hungarian representation to a neutral State. For the time being, the Hungarian people cannot send a delegate to the UN because they cannot elect the government they want. [Rest of broadcast unintelligible.] 1100 "The following news has been sent to us from the village of Csaroda in Szatmar County:

"We people of Csaroda wish to report that since the night of October 23, the Soviet Army has been moving several formations into our country. According to latest announcements, Soviet troops will be withdrawn from Budapest. Why then are new Soviet troops necessary? We demand immediate action which will prevent the entry of Soviet troops into our country and which will ensure their immediate withdrawal from Budapest. The government must inform the people of the truth; it must keep its promise...


0800 "We call upon the people of Szombathely . . . to express their wishes and demands ... without any marching up and down. . . . We do not want the people - . . to be troubled by treacherous provacateurs in demonstrations where Hungarian blood may be shed. We call on the workers - . - to voice their demands in disciplined meetings in their work places. However, they must uphold the strike. . . . Radio Free Szombathely is fully independent -and separate from Radio Free Gyor. By means of Radio Szombathely, the County Vas National Committee transmits the uniform demands of the population to the Hungarian government. These demands are: bloodshed must be stopped. . . . Foreign troops must leave Budapest. ...The government must take immediate measures to prevent the overwhelming numerical superiority of [Soviet] forces from crushing . . . our Hungarian brothers. . . . Hungarians see that [Soviet] soldiers have not yet left [41/42] Budapest, that they are still shooting and have not received orders to leave Budapest. - . . Nobody doubts that today, tomorrow or in a month the last [Soviet] tanks will roll over the corpses of our last fighting brothers. We are but a midget fighting a giant. . . . It was not Hungarians who fired the first gun.

... How long does the government intend to wait before issuing a cease-fire and ordering the recall of foreign troops from the capital? ... So long as these demands are not fulfilled, the working people of County Vas will maintain the strike. . . . We, the National Committee of County Vas . - . declare that we want a free, independent, democratic and Socialist Hungary headed by the govern ment of Imre Nagy. . . We demand that lmre Nagy freely and independently exert power in the name of the people.


1328 "Premier Imre Nagy and members of the government will now address the Hungarian nation. Here is Premier Nagy:

"Hungarian workers, peasants, intellectuals. As a result of the revolution and the mighty movement of democratic forces our nation has reached the crossroads. The national government, acting in complete agreement with the Presidium of the Hungarian Workers' Party, has arrived at a decision vital to the nation's life...

"In the interests of further democratization . . . the Cabinet has abolished the one-party system and has decided that we should return to a system of government based on the democratic cooperation of the coalition parties as they existed in 1945. In accordance with this decision, a new Cabinet has been set up within the national government. Its members are Imre Nagy, Zoltan Tildy, Bela Kovacs, Ferenc Erdei, Janos Kadar, Geza Losonczy(9) and persons to be nominated by the Social Democratic Party. The govern. ment will submit a proposal to the Presidential Council . . . . to appoint Janos Kadar and Geza Losonczi Ministers of State.

"The natj'onal government appeals to the headquarters of the Soviet Command to begin the immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops from Budapest. At the same time we wish to inform the people of Hungary that we are going to request the Soviet Union to withdraw all Soviet troops from Hungary.

"In the name of the national government I wish to declare that we recognize all the autonomous democratic local authorities which were formed during the revolution, that we rely on them and want their support.

"Fellow Hungarians! To safeguard the achievements of the revolution we must first of all establish order. Fratricidal war must stop immediately. Avoid all further disturbances!

"Minister of State Zoltan Tildy:

"The nation's will has been fulfilled and the national revolution has triumphed. . . . I stand before the microphone deeply moved. I have not written down my speech and therefore it may be disjointed. But I want to congratulate Hungarian youth from the bottom of my heart. - . . I declare before the HungarIan nation-before the whole world-that these young people and the soldiers and workers who fought with them are not only worthy of the youth of March 1848 but have surpassed March 15, 1848 by their heroic struggle and . . . their achievements. The least the Hungarian nation can do is to declare the day on which this struggle began a national holiday in memory of their heroic battles. - . . The national government will bury the heroes of the revolution with military honors and it will take generous care of the wounded and the families of those heroes who fell in battle.

"In this connection, I want to ask the representatives of fighting university youth to send their delegates to me at the parliament building. Premier Nagy will also await them. We shall charge them with an official mission: the formation of a National Guard Battalion to help restore order.

"I want to announce a few other measures. I inform the country that Peter Kos, former representative of Hungary at the UN, has been recalled and that a new UN delegation will be appointed which will represent the views of this government.

"I want to say, too, that [compulsory] crop deliveries . . . will be discontinued today. I am convinced that Hungary's farming population will provide more supplies for urban dwellers and workers from now on. . . . I also wish to say that all other justified demands of the peasantry will be carefully examined by the government.

"The radio too . . . will become the radio of the entire Hungarian nation. We shall see to it that those mistakes and errors in the past will never again be repeated.

"I am convinced that the people and leaders of the Soviet Union will see, once they negotiate with a free and not a humiliated nation, how different our relationship [42/43] is, how much greater the mutual understanding, respect and love.

"Hungarians! A grave responsibility rests with all of us. We must create a new national life. . . Freedom is not threatened by force alone; it is also endangered by upheavals. . . . The government has acted correctly in deciding to abolish one-party rule in Hungary. We declare that the people of the country must decide the future of the nation freely and without interference. Free elections will be held and we are making preparations for them. The only danger to these elections would be our inability to restore internal order.

Peace is the guardian of our future and I appeal to every Hungarian . . . to feel this responsibility. . . . I ask university youth to help the country restore order. .

"Finally I wish to say a few words to the leaders of my own party . . . those leaders of the Independent Smallholders' Party who have been hardened in political fights and who are still in this country. I ask those men who were neither intimidated nor swayed from their convictions by despotism and violence and who still hold the country's independence dear ... immediately to take in hand the reorganization of the party in Budapest and the provinces. They must freely call Hungarians to their ranks. - . - We must establish a firm party organization as soon as p05sible and contribute to restoring order and safeguarding the nation's future."

First Deputy Premier Ferenc Erdei: "We must now resolutely defend the achievements of the revolution from attempts by those who would like to turn back the clock. We must also defend the revolution from acts which would result in complete anarchy and destroy the vital accomplishments . . . of our people. We need all our democratic forces. For this reason, I call upon all my Peasant Party colleagues to contact all former members of the party, to re-establish its former organizations and to mobilize its former members . . . to help secure order. I call on them to cooperate with other coalition parties - . - oppose all forces which incite anarchy and defend and consolidate the revolution and democracy."

Minister of State Janos Kadar:

"I want you to know that all the resolutions passed today by the Council of Ministers have been fully approved by the Presidium of the Hungarian Workers' Party and I want to add that I fully approve of all that was said by the speakers before me -Imre Nagy, Zoltan Tildy and Ferenc Erdei- . . . I speak to Communists, those Communists who were prompted by the progressive ideas of mankind and Socialism to join the Party. . . . Comrades, owing to the leadership of the past years our Party has been cast under a grave shadow. We must rid our Party of this burden, of all the accusations hurled at it. This must be done with a clear conscience and with ... courageous resolve. The ranks of the Party will shake, but I am sure that no . . . honest, sincere Communist will leave the Party. Those who joined us for selfish personal reasons . . . will be the ones who leave. But having rid ourselves of this ballast and the burden of past crimes committed by certain persons in our leadership, we will fight . . . under more favorable conditions for our ideas, our people, and our country. I ask every Communist individually to set an example worthy of a man and a Communist by restoring order, beginning normal life, resuming work . . . and laying the foundations of an ordered life. Only by doing so can we earn the respect of our countrymen.

1406 "Dear listeners, we are beginning a new chapter in the history of the Hungarian radio. For many years the radio has been an instrument of lies: it merely carried out orders. It lied day and night; it lied on all wave lengths. [43/44] Not even at the hour of our country's rebirth did it cease its campaign of lies, but the struggle which . . . brought national freedom also freed our radio. Those who spoke those lies are no longer among the staff of the Hungarian radio, which will henceforth bear the name of Kossuth and Petofi. We who are now at the microphone are new men. We shall tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth...

1449 "Attention, attention! We are interrupting our program for a very important message. Minister of State Zoltan Tildy told a workers' delegation that he thinks it important that Primate Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty return to his seat in Esztergom and, by taking up his activities as Primate of Hungary, take part . . . in the noble fight which counts on every true patriot in these historic times.

1730 "We are now going to read to you the order of the day issued by the Minister of Defense:

I have requested from the Command of the Soviet Armed Forces the immediate withdrawal of its troops from the territory of . . . Budapest. The commander of the Soviet troops having agreed, all Soviet troops stationed in Budapest will begin their withdrawal on October 30 at 1500 hours and, according to the plan, the withdrawal will be completed by dawn of October 31, 1956. Concurrent with the withdrawal of Soviet troops, units of the Hungarian People's Army and the police and National Guard will take over the maintenance of order...

Karoly Janza, Minister of Defense [44/45]


1700 Statement by the Szabolcs-Szatmar County Revolutionary Council:

"Hungarians, it is we who are nearest to Zahony [town at Soviet border] and it is our duty to alert you. This time we do not promise you a quiet night. No . . . the cease-fire is sincere only if the armies remain in position. After the cease-fire foreign troops advanced for two whole days. For two days they let their tanks loose on the freedom fighters. . . . The tanks are still here. But those Russian troops which were nearest the frontier have turned back. They have departed. And so now we salute them, and this salute will be heard beyond our frontiers..."

1715 "Just now it has been announced from Kisvarda that . . . many thousands of tanks . . are pouring into our country. Motorized infantry is advancing to Nyiregyhaza. New Russian units... Marshal Zhukov, do you know of this? You must know...

1755 A four-point appeal by the National Air Defense Command to the Council of Ministers demanding the withdrawal of all Soviet forces from Budapest within 12 hours.

"Marshal Zhukov has given the order for withdrawal of Soviet troops. . . . In Zahony, the withdrawal of troops is being organized. . . . We ask the people to maintain discipline and help facilitate the untroubled withdrawal of troops."


1857 "At 1700 [GMT] negotiations started between Premier Imre Nagy and representatives of the armed insurgent forces, the National Revolutionary Committee, and the revolutionary intellectuals and youth. . . . The talks are progressing favorably. The proposals of the insurgents wifl be presented to the government by Premier Nagy.

1930 Announcement that a new Revolutionary Committee of Hungarian actors has been formed and has joined the National Revolutionary Council of Intellectuals.

"It has also been decided that theaters will not be opened so long as there are Soviet soldiers in the country. . . . We demand that a delegation representing the true interests of the Hungarian people should be sent to the UN immediately, that the security police should be completely disbanded . . . and that all persons responsible for the bloodshed should be tried in public."

1935 Radio Budapest comes on the air as "Radio Free Kossuth." [45/48]

Wednesday, October 31, 1956


0455 Notice that postal services are to be resumed during the day.

0700 "Last night Budapest was relatively calm. Only a few shots could be heard here and there. . Soviet troops left . . early this morning."

News that transportation is still paralyzed in most of the country.

Announcement that following a proposal of the Revolutionary Military Council the Minister of Defense has ordered changes in the army uniform, effective that day. Insignia on hats to be replaced with the Kossuth crest. . . . [48/49]

0955 Proclamation of the Representatives of the Revolutionary Forces and the Revolutionary Council of the People's Army:

"1. We demand that after evacuating the territory of Budapest, Soviet armed forces also evacuate the entire territory of Hungary. The members of the undersigned committee are well aware of the necessity for diplomatic relations, but they will not agree to the use of such relations as an excuse for an indefinite stay of Soviet forces in the country.

"2. We demand from the government the immediate termination of the Warsaw Pact, by informing the members of that Pact.

"3. The delegates of the Hungarian Revolutionary Youth Committee, together with the delegates of the Revolutionary Council of the People's Army, demand that Soviet forces evacuate the territory of Hungary by December 31, 1956. If this does not take place, we shall take up arms and fight for the freedom of our country and the pure cause of the revolution, taking our oath that as long as foreign weapons endanger our country we shall fight for that country and thereby risk our lives and our security.

"4. We announce that we shall take up arms and fight against any foreign or internal enemy who may cross our borders and endanger our independence.

"5. We demand that, if necessary, the Hungarian People's Army, with the help of the Revolutionary Forces, take over the uranium ore quarries in Hungary.

"6. Anyone who breaks the discipline of the Revolutionary Forces and who does not carry out the orders of his commander damages the cause of revolution. He must be brought before a revolutionary court.

"7. The representatives of the Revolutionary Forces, together with the elected Revolutionary Committee of Hungarian Army Unity, form the Revolutionary Committee of the Hungarian Army Forces. This Revolutionary Committee is the su preme commanding organ of the Army. It has been agreed that for the sake of public security, order and peace, the Armed Revolutionary Youth will maintain order in cooperation with the Revolutionary Committee of the [49/50] Armed Forces and with the police. They will jointly arrest and turn over to the independent justice of Hungary criminals and elements that are alien to the people. We approve of the disbanding of the seeurity police, and demand that no member of the security police become a member of armed or police units.

"Signed: Representatives of the Revolutionary Forces and the Revolutionary Council of the People's Army, Budapest, October 31, 1956

1100 "TASS reports from Moscow that the Soviet government has instructed its military command to withdraw military formations from Budapest as soon as the Hungarian government considers it appropriate. At the same time, the Soviet government is ready to enter into negotiations with the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and with other governments which are party to the Warsaw Pact on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary as well.

Summary of a report in Igarsag, paper of the Revolutionary Hungarian Army and Youth:

"The reporter said that Soviet troops were already called in and martial law announced when Imre Nagy became president of the Council. Thus he was faced with a fait accompli. ... Even on Friday the Gero-Hegedus clique wanted to force Imre Nagy to sign a pre-dated letter calling on Soviet troops' to help crush the rebellion. Of course, Imre Nagy would not sign this letter."

A proclamation of the Army Officers Cadet School demanding that the Army "should at last be an independent national Army free from the influence of any political party or trend."

"Attention, attention! We have just been informed by the . . . Ministry of Defense that the Soviet tanks which had en circled the Ministry left a few minutes ago...[50/51]

1237 Report from Magyar Honved, the new Army paper, on the freeing of Cardinal Mindszenty:

"On Tuesday evening at 1900 [GMT] four officers and a driver received information at the barracks of Retsag that security policemen were guarding Primate Mindszenty in a room of the mansion house at Felsopeteny. The . . . officers drove immediately to Felsopeteny, disarmed the 14 men who were guarding the Primate, and drove him to the barracks in Retsag. The Primate was immensely glad ... and wanted to travel to Budapest that very night. Because the road seemed unsafe, the Primate was brought to Budapest in the morning, between 0500 and 0515, in an armored car guarded by four tanks. In all the villages they passed the people threw flowers to the Primate and the soldiers. ... In Buda he is, at the moment, receiving various delegations, and 15 minutes ago he gave his first press interview to the correspondent of Magyar Honved:

"'I admire what the weapons of the youth, the soldiers, the university students, the villagers, the peasants and the workers accomplished. After eight years of imprisonment, they tore open the door of my prison. These brave officers of Retsag cared for nothing, they came to the house where I was imprisoned and took me along with them. I rested in the barracks. I send my pontifical blessing to the Hungarian arms. I wish the glory acquired by Hungarian arms to be multiplied by our peasantry when the need comes. ... I want to be informed of the situation before I do or say more.'"

1400 "The airlift is functioning well. Both yesterday and today a large quantity of medicine and food arrived at Ferihegy Airport. The airlift is operated by [number unintelligible] planes. Foreign relief consignments which come among other places from Great Britain, Switzerland and Austria are concentrated in Vienna and thence are taken by the regular airlift service to Budapest. On Tuesday, 21 [foreign?] planes landed at Ferihegy Airport, including Polish, Romanian, Belgian and Swiss planes. On Wednesday the arrival of food and medicine ... is expected."

Listing of the new leadership of the Social Democratic Party: President, Anna Kethly; First Secretary, Gyula Kelemen; Deputy, Dr. Andras Revesz. "The great majority of the interim party leadership was imprisoned during the years of Ra kosi's terror ... the party's newspaper Nepszava will appear tomorrow.

1602 Announcement by the workers of the former National Air Defense Command:

"1... - We demand that our air defense be independent, free of all political and party influences. ... [51/52]

"2. We demand that Soviet troops withdraw from our country and that the governinent constantly inform the people of the progress of this withdrawal.

"3. We demand that Hungary become a neutral State, like Austria.

"4. We demand that free elections be held, without the supervision of any foreign State.

"5. We demand that our uranium mines be placed under Hungarian control immediately.

"6. We demand that public buildings which are now free be immediately handed over for necessary apartments.

"7. We demand that every organ of air defense be immediately used for the work of reconstruction, since it is in this way that they desire to show their loyalty to the revolutionary movement.

"8. We undertake the immediate dismantling of the unexploded shells, mines and hand grenades in Budapest.

"9. We place the stocks of our air raid defense stores and . . . drugs, bandages and medical instruments at the disposal of the health authorities.

"Signed: The Revolutionary Committee of the National Center of Hungarian Air Defense."

"This afternoon a large crowd gathered in Lajos Kossuth Square. Imre Nagy came down from Parliament to the Kossuth Memorial and made a speech. In this speech he emphasized that it was not he who demanded the aid of Soviet troops, that this measure was taken without his knowledge. He declared that simultaneous with our resignation from the Warsaw Pact we are asking for the immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops. After the Premier's speech, the crowd broke up into smaller groups and expressed its dissatisfaction with the person of the Minister of the Interior, Ferenc Munnich."

Description of Cardinal Mindszenty's arrival at his palace in Buda. "As early as 0700 [GMT] a growing crowd was gathering around the building in Uri Street to greet the Cardinal. . . . Cardinal Primate Mindszenty appeared on the balcony of the palace and spoke a few words of gratitude, after which he gave his blessing to the people who were kneeling as far as the eye could see. He then retired to his chapel, where he celebrated mass."

"The semi-official Hungarian Roman Catholic Press Information Service took up its activities once again this morning, at 0900."

"The Ministry of Health today took over two important health institutions. From now on the former security police hospital, Otto Corvin, will be under the authority of the Minister of Health, and will serve the civilian population. The hospital in Kutvolgyi Ut, which was until now reserved for Party functionaries, will be at the service of general patients."

"The Ambassador of the Yugoslav People's Republic today called on Premier Nagy and had an interview with him which lasted half an hour. . . . A delegation of Csepel workers also had an interview with Imre Nagy today. They assured him of their complete confidence. Their most urgent demand was the immediate departure of the Soviet forces. . . - At the moment Imre Nagy is conferring with the Trans-Danubian Revolutionary Committee. A delegation from Cegled is waiting at his office to see him...

1700 Appeal to the workers from the temporary executive committee of the National Federation of Free Hungarian Trade Unions:

"Workers, Hungarian toilers! The miraculous revolution of youth and working people who have participated in the fighting has turned into a revolution of tlie entire Hungarian [52/53] people and nation. The national revolution of our people has overthrown the rule of bureaucratic servants of foreign interest;. Stalinist sectarian leaders have been removed, and factories have truly and irrevocably come into the hands of the workers. This revolution has also made the liberation of the trade union movement possible, so that, independent of all Party and government influence, the trade unions can indeed become a militant and consistent organization representing the interests of the workers.

"On the recommendation of the temporary Revolutionary Committee of the National Federation of Free Hungarian Trade Unions, the presidium of the National Trade Union Council has been dissolved with immediate effect and, with the inclusion of old and formerly imprisoned representatives of the workers' movement, a temporary executive committee set up. The executive committee asks workers, including organized workers, that wherever they disagree with the composition of factory committees they should hold new trade union elections on the basis of real trade union democracy.

"Workers, organized workers! It has become a general national demand that we shall not resume work so long as Soviet troops remain in Budapest. The government has promised . . . that the Soviet troops shall be withdrawn. The radio will announce the implementation of this.

We demand that the government should negotiate definitely with the Soviet government about the withdrawal of Soviet troops within a short time from the whole country, and publish the deadline for it.

"We owe it to our youth, workers and army that the factories and workshops have truly become ours. It is our turn now to defend our factories, if need be with arms, and the magnificent achievements of our national revolution.

Appeal for help from the Hungarian Red Cross to the youth: "No one knows the number of wounded ... [53/55]


1217 "Attention, attention! . . - As reported, the withdrawal of Soviet units has begun. However, for reasons that we and the people of the country do not understand, large Soviet forces -anti-aircraft units, tanks and troops- have changed their direction and again entered the territory of Hungary from Zahony in the direction of Nyiregyhaza. The reason for this circular movement of Soviet troops is incomprehensible to us. We observed the movement of Soviet troops all night, with the help of various sources, and we informed the President of the Council of Ministers [Premier] of the events of the night. We spoke by telephone with the Minister of State, Zoltan Tildy, and with the Deputy Minister of Defense, and we earnestly requested them to take up the matter with the Soviet commanders most energetically. . . . At our request the Council of Ministers was called together, and we received the following answer this morning: 'I can reassure you of the building up of an independent, free and democratic Hungary. ...


1735 States that it has been scientifically established that the jamming of the station is being done by a station "in a foreign country." The radio again protests this air piracy. . .


2100 "News: The President of the Council of Ministers has declared that the government of the Hungarian People's Republic [55/56] will immediately take up with the government of the Soviet Union the question of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary. . . . The Hungarian government has requested the Soviet government to appoint a delegation to start talks immediately, and has also asked that the time and place of the above-mentioned talks be fixed."

"Many requests have been submitted to Radio Free Kossuth asking for the discontinuation of jamming of Hungarian broadcasts from abroad. Radio Free Kossuth's viewpoint is that the struggle of words and ideas should not be interfered with over the air . . . the operation of jamming stations in Hungary has already been stopped. Therefore, the jamming which still interferes with broadcasts does not come from this country. The best illustration of this is that . . . the broadcasts of Radio Free Petofi are also jammed."

Communique from the Revolutionary Students' Committee: "All armed students must return to their posts as soon as possible."

"Leaflets distributed by the Revolutionary University Students' Committee carried the slogan: 'Our confidence is in Imre Nagy!' The leaflet announces, 'On Tuesday, October 23, this was also the slogan,' and then it continues:

"'For about two or three days this confidence was shaken, but now it is stronger than ever. It has become evident that Imre Nagy was a prisoner of the security police for two days, and that he made his first radio announcement with a machine gun at his back. His recent declaration revealed that the introduction of martial law and the interference of Soviet troops were not ordered by him, and that the Rakosi-Gero scoundrels charged him with this in order to cause his downfall. We therefore believe in Imre Nagy, and we warn him to safeguard carefully the trust of the people! He must separate himself from the traitors. He must clean the filth of the past from the government, he must remove those who are rightly despised and hated by the people. He must take the necessary steps to accomplish the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary, and must give instructions which will prevent the infiltration of the security police into the new police forces. Imre Nagy's adherence to his duties has already been proved by several proper measures, and we impatiently await further measures of this kind. Our trust will increase in proportion to Imre Nagy's compliance with the people's justified demands.'"

Message relayed from Gyor requesting Budapest hospitals not to send cars to the Austrian frontier, because Austrian authorities will not let them pass. News that the Austrians are delivering aid consignments by rail or in their own cars. . . . [56/59]

Thursday, November 1, 1956


0858 "On October 31, 1956, delegates of the National Committees of Trans-Danubia set up the Trans-Danubian National Council, with headquarters in Gyor. The Council fully identifies itself with the heroic freedom fighters. Every county in Trans-Danubia is represented by two delegates and county capitals and the city of Gyor will each be represented by two delegates.

"Within the next 24 hours, the Trans-Danubian National [59/60] Council will start negotiations with the government on the subject of its fulfillment of the nation's demands. The TNC wants to receive a guarantee from the government that it will keep its promises in particular the promise that Soviet troops will evacuate the country at the given time. The TNC welcomes [into its organization] the military units of Papa, Gyor, Tata and Zalaegerszeg and salutes their promise to protect the people from any foreign attack, even in the face of higher orders. The TNC considers it desirable that all military forces be organized uniformly in Trans-Danubia. . .

"The government must announce to the UN that Hungary has become a neutral country. We demand that the government guarantee and secure freedom of speech, press, assembly and religion. If the government fails to fulfill our demands ... we shall refuse to support it even conditionally. A five-member delegation will immediately discuss our demands with Premier Nagy [60/61]

1400 Announcement that Nagy, in addition to his duties as Premier, will take over the direction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "This change was necessary to enforce the new, independent political policy of the Hungarian people's government. The chief task . . . is immediate talks in connection with the Warsaw Pact and the withdrawal of Soviet troops."

"Workers of the Mint! The real cause of the revolution is in danger. Arms have been obtained by elements whose objective is not the sacred cause of the revolution but looting and robbery. For the sake of defending the peaceful population, we ask you to mint the insignia of the

National Guard...

National Peasant Party announcement that it has changed its name to the Petofi Party to "express its sharp opposition to the years of tyranny.

"The Petofi Party will accept into its ranks only those persons who showed a truly Hungarian and humane attitude . . . during the years of tyranny. Yesterday, when the party was reorganized, a group of directors was elected instead of a President. . . . The newly-elected Secretary-General is Ferenc Farkas."

Ministry of Health communique:

"The events of the past week have had their effect on public health ... strict compliance with the requirements of public and individual cleanliness is important.

...Due to the vast accumulation of trash and refuse, the [Budapest sanitation department] is having difficulty carrying out its tasks. The help of the population is needed. . . Guard against hoarding perishable foods. . . Milk should be boiled before consumption. . . . Although there is no [61/62] epidemic, persons who suspect they are ill should seek medical attention. . . . Measures by the health authorities should be carried out more strictly than hitherto."

Appeal by the Hungarian Writers' Union to guard the "purity of the revolution," and not to "pass judgment in the streets. . . . Hand over the guilty unharmed either to the National Guard or Army patrols. Personal revenge is an act unworthy of us. The whole world is watching. . . . Do not besmirch our revolution.



1300 Text of the telegram sent by Nagy to the President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR:

"The government of the Hungarian People's Republic wishes to begin immediate negotiations on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungarian territory. With reference to the latest declaration of the Soviet government . . . [that] it is ready to negotiate with the Hungarian government and other member States of the Warsaw Pact on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary, the Hungarian government invites the Soviet government to appoint a delegation so that talks can begin as soon as possible. It requests that the Soviet government designate the time and place.

"Cardinal Mindszenty . . . received representatives of the Hungarian and foreign press, radio and television in Buda Palace.

He said: 'After long imprisonment, I greet all the sons of the Hungarian nation. I bear no hatred against anyone. ..The struggle being waged for [Hungarian] liberty is unparalleled in world history. Our young men deserve all the glory. They deserve our gratitude and . . . our prayers. .

"The situation in the country is very serious and all conditions for continuing normal life are absent. A way towards fruitful development must be found as soon as possible. I am collecting information and in two days I shall speak to the nation about ways towards a solution."

Press reviews:

Report that an article by Anna Kethly in Nepszava warns against the counterrevolutionary dangers which still exist and which "threaten the ideological substance and goals of the revolution. . . . Freed from one prison, let us not permit the country to become a prison of another color. Let us watch over the factories, mines and the land, which must remain in the hands of the people."

"Nepakarat, organ of the National Council of Free Trade Unions, announces that the Chairman of the Central Council of Trade Unions has resigned and that a provisional executive commit-tee composed of revolutionary leaders and former trade union leaders who were imprisoned or 'put on index' has taken over. [The paper says that] the committee has issued an announcement stating that ... the trade unions are independent of the government and all political parties, ... and [will not] surrender their right to strike. . . . The committee has decided that Hungarian Trade Unions will no longer belong to the [Communist dominated] World Federation of Trade Unions.

Magyar Fuggetlenseg, organ of the National Revolutionary Committee:

"Nagy must free himself from the forces of reaction. He can do so now because the country is still on his side; it is still possible to repair the mistakes committed by the government on October 23. We shall not yield and we will struggle against the restoration of capitalism with the same force with which we ousted Rakosi and Gero. . . . Do not abuse the patience of the rebelling people. . . . Perhaps we are one minute away from the 12th hour and that minute may mean life or death."

Review of the situation in the provinces: reports that at Debrecen Soviet troop movements were noted [62/63] during the night of October 31; they were believed moving towards Szolnok; that the Szeged strike committee has called on workers of the town factory to continue the strike; that in Baranya County the National Committee of workers decided to start work in all factories on November 2 in order to help restore order. [63/64]


1856 "Imre Nagy at the microphone:

"People of Hungary: The Hungarian national government, imbued with profound responsibility towards the Hungarian people and history, declare ... the neutrality of the Hungarian People's Republic. . . The revolutionary struggle fought by the Hungarian people and its heroes has at last carried the cause of freedom and independence to victory. The heroic struggle has made it possible to implement . . our fundamental national interest -neutrality. We appeal to our neighbors to respect the irrevocable decision of our people. . . . Working millions of Hungary, protect and strengthen the consolidation of order in our country ... -free, independent, democratic and neutral Hungary!

2039 Statement by Ferenc Farkas on behalf of the Petofi Party:

"So long as the Soviet government has not effected withdrawal of its troops from the country, the Petofi Party cannot accept any part in the government... [Our] fight was conducted for freedom, independence and democracy. Al though the fight for freedom has triumphed, it has not yet achieved all its objectives. For the sake of attaining these objectives, the Petofi Party calls for a referendum within three days on the immediate abrogation of the Warsaw Pact. By this proposal, we wish to lend support to the decision of the Imre Nagy government. .

"A supreme national council, headed by composer Zoltan Kodaly, should be formed and include representatives of the armed insurgents, the democratic par ties and the Writers' Union. The council should be the supreme [organ] of governmental power in the revolutionary period. . . . Formation of a supreme national council . . . would mean that the government, one section of which is re sponsible for the outhreak of the revolution, would fall at once."

2100 "Dear listeners, Janos Kadar will now speak to the Hungarian people:

"Hungarian workers, peasants and intellectuals. . . . In a glorious uprising our people have shaken off the Rakosi regime. They have achieved freedom for the people and independence for the country, without which there can be no Socialism. We can safely say that . . . those who prepared this uprising were recruited from our ranks. Communist writers, journalists, university students, the youth of the Petofi Club, thousands and thousands of workers and peasants and veteran fighters who were imprisoned on false charges fought in the front lines against Rakosi's despotism and political hooliganism. We are proud that you have stood your ground honestly in the armed uprising. . . . You were permeated by true patriotism and loyalty to Socialism. .

"We have come to a crossroads in our uprising. The Hungarian democratic parties must [now] choose between stabilizing our achievements or facing an open counterrevolution. . . . We did not fight in order that mines and factories might be snatched from the hands of the working class and the land from the hands of the peasantry. . . . Either the uprising secures the basic achievements of democracy ... or we sink back into the slavery of the world of the gentry . . . and into the service of foreigners. The grave and alarming danger exists that foreign armed intervention [64/65] may allot to our country the tragic fate of Korea. . . . We must eliminate the nests of counterrevolution.

"In these momentous hours, the Communists who fought against Rakosi's despotism have . . . decided to form a new Party. . . In these momentous hours, we call on every Hungarian worker who is inspired by affection for the people and the country to join our Party, whose name is the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party. A preparatory committee has been formed whose members are: Ferenc Donath, Janos Kadar, Sandor Kopacsi, Geza Losonczi, Gyorgy Lukacs, Imre Nagy and Zoltan Szanto. This committee will begin to organize the Party, will supervise its operations temporarily and will convene as soon as possible a national statutory meeting. The Party will publish a paper entitled Nepszabadsag.

"Workers, peasants and intellectuals! The new Party, the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, is prepared to do its share in fighting for the consolidation of independence and democracy. - - - We turn to the newly-formed democratic parties-first of all . . . to the Social Democratic Party -with the request that they help consolidate the government and thereby overcome the danger of menacing countries and intervention from abroad...." [65/66]

2120 Order of the Revolutionary National Defense Committee and the Minister of Defense:

"1. Officers, NCO's and soldiers separated from their units, on leave or otherwise absent should report within 24 hours to local garrisons or the National Guard Command if they are not yet members of units concerned with maintaining order.

"2. Military persons who are already members of organized groups participating in the revolution should remain in these groups and help keep order until further notice.

"3. Every military person separated from his unit . . . must report his whereabouts to his unit.



1900 "The Revolutionary Committee of the Budapest City Council held a meeting today in City Hall. The meeting was presided over by former Mayor Peter Bechtler(10) . . . The Committee discussed problems of interest to the population of the capital. It was found that the remains of the victims of the bloody struggle is an important problem. . . . The gas works have at present sufficient supplies for 20 days, but the electricity supply is not so good. In a few days it will be necessary to introduce restrictions. There is no difficulty with regard to water supplies. Great difficulties have arisen concerning garbage collection ... As regards food supplies of the capital, the situation is good. Ninety percent of the food shops and restaurants are open. The country is giving large-scale assistance to the Budapest population ... [66/67]

Friday, November 2, 1956


0835 "Throughout Heves County [northeast of Budapest] the situation is relatively quiet and calm. Plowing and sowing went on yesterday in all the villages, and in nearly every village collections were made to help feed the population of Budapest. Every day some 10 to 20 food trucks are sent to Budapest. The radio speech made last night by Imre Nagy was received with pleasure throughout the country. The people are glad that at last the government is actively proving that it is truly at the head of the revolution and is carrying out the people's demands. Now the Soviet response to the declaration is awaited and the people in the county want the country to be informed of events quickly. The organization of the new democratic parties began yesterday throughout the country. In Bekescsaba [town in southeast], too, the announcement made by Imre Nagy was received with pleasure. The strike continues. Shops, however, are reopening and teaching is being resumed in the schools...." [67/68]

1100 Appeal from the All-Hungarian National Committee to the National Committees of the counties, districts, towns and villages:

"The most important task for the mo ment is to resume work everywhere. Tht government has fulfilled the demands ol the insurgent nation. With its reported instructions, the government did what it could for the people and the revolution. We endanger the victory of our revolution if we do not start work immediately. If the miners do not deliver coal, the country will lack electric power. . . . Also our stores must not run out of provisions ... This is, today, the order of the revolution, of our future and of circumspect reflection. Speak to the workers' councils in the plants and factories, persuade them to take up production for the sake of our people and the revolution.

"Because of the transport strike, the life blood of Budapest cannot start circulating. If the workers of the streetcar enterprise would only start to work they could soon achieve good results.

"The Revolutionary Committee of Traffic Workers summons all traffic workers to start work on the basis of the agreement concluded with the government."

News report from the station's Vienna correspondent:

"Yesterday, November 1st, the meeting of the Socialist International opened. Anna Kethly was received with enthusiastic cheers. In her speech Anna Kethly declared that not she but the heroic Hungarian freedom fighters deserve the cheers. 'I don't think,' she said, 'that ever in the history of the world such a heroic and determined fight has taken place as the one now being waged in Hungary.' She also declared that the Social Democrats will not participate in Hungarian elections as long as Soviet troops are sta tioned in Hungary."

Press review: Magyar Honved the Army paper:

"From Czechoslovakia and Romania we heard unworthy commentaries about our people and our victorious revolution. Rude Pravo, the official paper of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, had a sinister warning for us: the Hungarian people will have to pay for these days.

-Why do these papers condemn us?

[Soviet First Deputy Premier] Mikoyan and [Soviet Politburo member] Suslov have been in Hungary for the last few days and could personally see what really happened in Budapest. We advise the Romanian and Czechoslovak papers that wrote in an unworthy tone about our revolution to send their correspondents to Budapest and to the other towns and villages of the country to check thoroughly what really happened in Hungary.

[Imre Nagy and Ferenc Erdei were asked] whether Matyas Rakosi has been granted the right of asylum in the Soviet Union or has simply fled over the border. The leaders of the government answered that . . . Hungary will ask for the extradition of Rakosi . . . according to international law and will bring him to trial. Then it will be seen whether he has been granted the right of asylum or whether he has simply fled ... [68/69]

1400 Communique from the Ministry of Health:

"The events of the last week have affected the conditions of public health... Strict compliance with the requirements of public as well as individual cleanliness is important. The Budapest cleaning enterprise has been given instructions for trash clearance. Due to the accumulation of vast quantities of trash and refuse, the enterprise can carry out its tasks only with difficulty. The help of the population is needed. Wherever possible, trash should be buried or burned."

1410 Announcement that Premier Nagy has appointed Dr. Zoltan Zseboek Hungarian government Commissioner for the Red Cross.

"The gates of the political prison in Szolnok were opened yesterday. The 600 former political prisoners and the government delegates sang the National Anthem together in front of the national flag as a demonstration of united support for the government. The wrongly-convicted p0litical prisoners have already returned to their homes."

Announcement that the Hungarian Independence Party was reconstituted on October 31. The party's objectives: peace in Hungary; Hungarian independence; and freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, culture and choice of employment.

1618 "Hungarian Jewry, having regained its religious freedom, enthusiastically salutes the achievements of the revolution, pays reverent homage to the heroes and identifies itself with the independent and free homeland. Hungarian Jewry appeals to Jewish organizations abroad to give quick and effective material help to the long-suffering Hungarian people.

"Signed: The Budapest Corps of Rabbis, the National Office of Hungarian Jews and the temporary Revolutionary Committee of the Jewish community in Budapest."

1645 Broadcast of a speech by Dr. Lajos Ordass, Bishop of the Southern Lutheran Church District and Chairman of the Hungarian Evangelical Theological Academy. [Bishop Ordass spoke successively in Hungarian, German and English, addressing listeners at home and abroad.] To foreign listeners:

"The national government has declared the neutrality of our country and I should like to ask you to give us any possible help to obtain recognition for this declaration.

Our freedom fight has taken many lives. There are many who have lost their family support and many who were wounded in the fighting. These need medicine. I ask you in the name of Jesus Christ to help us ... [69/70]



1300 "Laszlo Ravasz, Calvinist bishop, has been restored as head of the diocese of the Danube district. The weekly, Az Ut, is to cease publication and its place will be taken by a new Protestant weekly, Reformacio, under the direction of Bishop Ravasz. Janos Peter, Bishop of the Trans-Tisza region, has been asked to resign, as has Bishop Albert Bereczky, particularly in view of his present grave illness. Several of the lay leaders have also resigned. In a broadcast statement, Bishop Ravasz has said: 'The Reformed Church of Hungary renders homage and admiration to the heroes of the national insurrection.

The Church is proud of the purity of this revolution. . . . It is with humility that we have to confess that the Church, as a temporal institution, had become more committed than she was forced to do by the error and cunning of political power to which she is vitally opposed. She asks for the help of all the world's Christian Churches and in particular the brotherly help of the World Council of Churches and of the World Presbyterian Alliance so that she may follow the true road which she has again discovered. . . . Let nobody think of a restoration of the regime of past eras.

"Most of this morning's papers note with pleasure the declaration of the Chinese government concerning the just claims of the Polish and Hungarian peoples. . . . Nepakarat, organ of the Federation of Free Hungarian Trade Unions, carries an article on foreign policy approving the appeal broadcast yesterday by Imre Nagy. It says: 'As of today we are no longer the tool of a colonialism dis guised as Socialism, nor a figure on the chessboard of any conqueror. . . . We are extending a friendly hand toward the peoples, also to our neighbors in neutral Austria and to the free Yugoslavia which remains outside any bloc, toward Romania, Czechoslovakia and toward the people of the Soviet Union. We hope that their governments will understand the thirst for freedom and national life of our little nation. In these decisive hours this is the message we address to the whole world and all its peoples who love freedom. . .

Nepszava, organ of the Social Democratic Party . . . says: 'In 1948 the Hungarian Social Democratic Party was forcibly buried. Hundreds of its leaders were put in prison. Thousands of others were arbitrarily interned, while those who devoted their whole life to the sacred cause of humanity and the defense of justice for the poor were treated as common traitors. Many of them died in prison. But we are reborn again. . . . Let us take in hand again, as we did in Budapest, those trade union organizations which had been taken away from us. . . . Let our fighting peasants join their forces in order to frustrate all attempts for the reconstruction of the large estates. . . . Let us defend our hard-won freedom and let us build a neutral and democratic Hungary.' . .


1630 "Reflections about our situation:

"Imre Nagy's government, though not all its members, enjoys the confidence of the people. There are some reservations regarding this government; the nation demands the removal of some of its members and, let us add, demands it with justification. However, the nation and Imre Nagy have attained a common denominator. . . . Then why are the Soviet forces here? What is more, why are more Soviet forces arriving in Hungary? . . . The very fact that they are here irritates the people and creates the impression that the Soviet Union is not greatly inclined to recognize the Hungarian people's inalienable right to their independence and freedom. Life is slowly returning to normal but there will be complete reassurance and contentment only when the last Soviet soldier says goodbye to Hungary. [70/71]


1820 "The Hungarian government addressed three verbal notes to the Soviet Embassy in Budapest today. The first note reminds the Soviet Embassy that the Hungarian government asked the Soviet govemment last week to begin immediate negotiations for the withdrawal of the Soviet troops stationed in Hungary. At that time the Soviet government received this proposal with approval, and the Soviet Ambassador made a similar statement during his visit to the Hungarian Premier. Despite the aforementioned discussions, says the verbal note, new Soviet formations regrettably crossed the Hungarian frontiers on October 31 and November 1. "The Hungarian government has exerted the greatest possible efforts to obtain the withdrawal of these troops. Its steps, however, have proved to be in vain. Indeed, the Soviet troops continued their advance and some units took up positions around Budapest. Because of this the Hungarian government repudiated the Warsaw Pact on November 1, 1956. In the view of the Hungarian government, Hungarian-Soviet relations must be based on respect for Hungarian neutrality and on the principles of complete equality, sovereignty and non-interference in each other's internal affairs. In order to achieve this, the Hungarian government proposes that immediate negotiations, held on the basis of the above-mentioned principles, should begin between the representatives of the Hungarian and the Soviet governments about implementing the repudiation of the Warsaw Pact, with special regard to the withdrawal, with6ut delay, of the Soviet troops stationed in Hungary. The members of the Hungarian government delegation are Geza Losonczy, Minister of State and head of the delegation, Jozsef Kovago, Andras Marton, Ferenc Farkas and Vilmos Zentai.(11)

"The second note deals with the military aspects of the same problem, and proposes that the mixed committee charged with preparing the withdrawal of Soviet troops should begin its work on November 2, that is, immediately, in the building of the Hungarian parliament. The Hungarian government has nominated the following members to the preparatory mixed committee: Ferenc Erdei, Minister of State, Major General Pal Maleter, Major General Istvan Kovacs and Colonel Miklos Szucs.

"The third verbal note contains another protest against the military movements of Soviet troops in Hungary. It points out, once again, that new Soviet troops crossed the frontier on November 2, that is, today, and have occupied railway lines and railway stations on the way. In western Hungary Soviet troop movements can be observed in an East-West direction.

"To Mr. Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the United Nations, New York:

"Your Excellency, the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic wishes . . . to bring the following supplementary information to the knowledge of Your Excellency:

"I have already mentioned in my message of November 1 that new Soviet military formations had entered Hungary, that the Hungarian government had informed the Soviet Ambassador about this, that it had repudiated the Warsaw Pact, that it had declared Hungary's neutrality and had turned to the United Nations to guarantee the neutrality of the country. On November 2 the government of the Hungarian People's Repuhlic received new important information, Army reports, according to which considerable Soviet mili tary formations have crossed the country's frontier. They are advancing toward Budapest, occupying railway lines, railway stations, railway traffic installations and so forth on their way. Reports have also been received about Soviet troop movements, in an East- West direction, in western Hun-gary.

"In view of the above-mentioned facts the Hungarian government deems it necessary to inform the Soviet Embassy in Budapest and the other diplomatic missions accredited to Budapest about the steps directed against our People's Republic. The Hungarian government has at the same time made concrete proposals to the Soviet government concerning the withdrawal of Soviet troops stationed in Hungary, and the place for negotiations concerning implementation of the repudiation of the Warsaw Pact, and has also communicated the names of the Hungarian governmental delegation. In addition to this, the Hungarian government has proposed to the Soviet Embassy in Budapest the setting up of a mixed committee to prepare for the withdrawal of Soviet troops.

"I ask Your Excellency to call on the Great Powers to recognize Hungary's neutrality. The Security Council should instruct the Soviet and the Hungarian governments to begin negotiations immediately. I ask Your Excellency to inform the members of the Security Council about the above facts, and to accept the expression of my sincere esteem. [71/72]

"Signed: Imre Nagy, Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Acting Foreign Minister of the Hungarian People's Republic."

1945 "A picture of the streets in Budapest: . . . Traffic is lively. Restaurants and espressos are all open. The newspaper vendors shout twenty different newspaper headlines. . . . There are more people in the streets than usual, for some of the workers are not yet back ir' their factories. The great thing is that more and more factories are starting work. One after the other, the great plants- Ganz, Lang, etc. -announce that they have started up. Streetcars are already running. . . . There are still sporadic bits of bad news, such as Soviet moves. Then too, somewhere in Buda, there was shooting during the night. We do not know who was firing at whom."

2104 "The Revolutionary Committee of Hungarian Intelligentsia, in conjunction with the Hungarian Writers' Union, today sent to the World Peace Council, in care of M. Joliot-Curie, in Paris, the following telegram:

"The entire Hungarian people has manifested, in full unity, its will to adhere to its national independence and to the restoration of its sovereignty, to insist on the soonest possible evacuation of Soviet forces from the entire country. The fulfillment of these demands is an important pledge for the maintenance of peace in Eastern Europe. The Revolutionary Committee . . . in conjunction with the ... Writers' Union, requests the Peace Council to convoke an immediate conference, to be held in Vienna, on this matter...

"Foreign News: Today President Eisenhower offered 20 million dollars worth of food and other relief to the Hungarian revolutionaries, according to the Associated Press."

2240 "The Writers' Union has started to collect money in an unusual manner. This morning, at the most important points in Budapest, huge signs were put up and a genuine 1000 forint note stuck on them. . . Under the sign an empty ammunition box was placed and was being [72/73] filled with money. . . . No one guards it. . . . During the afternoon, in only a few hours, the population of Budapest donated 110,000 forint for the families of the martyrs of the revolution." 2300 Appeal from Istvan Szabo, chairman of the workers' council of the Budapest railroad station, to all railroad workers asking them to begin work in the morning.

Account of an interview given by Major General Pal Maleter, Deputy Minister of Defense, to correspondents of Western newspapers:

"Replying to the questions of the correspondents, Major General Pal Maleter made extremely important political statements. First of all, he informed the foreign journalists that according to military reconnaissance reports, new Soviet troops had entered Hungarian territory during the past few days: '. . . Our Army, however, has weapons, and if necessary it can defend itself against the intruders. In the interest of maintaining order we stand behind the national government, behind Imre Nagy and Zoltan Tildy. But the Army makes its further support of the government dependent on whether the government fulfills its promise and resigns from the Warsaw Pact.'

"Q: 'What negotiations has the government entered into?

"A: 'Zoltan Tildy conferred on Wednesday with Mr. Mikoyan, who promised that those troops which are in Hungary on grounds other than the Warsaw Pact will be withdrawn from the country.

"Q: 'Does this mean that the . . . Warsaw Pact troops will remain?'

"A: 'This is out of the question. Tildy has informed Mikoyan that we shall repudiate the Warsaw Pact in any case, and our government demanded that negotia

tions in this respect begin as soon as possible.'

"Q: 'What will happen to those troops now entering Hungary?'

"A: 'Naturally we shall regard them as being outside the Warsaw Pact and shall treat them accordingly. I must, however, declare that the people of Hungary are mature enough not to regard tardiness as an act of provocation. Nevertheless, we shall not lay down our arms before national independence has won complete victory.'

"The journalists then asked Maleter to speak about the insurrection, the battles, and relations between the insurgents and the Army.

"A: 'This insurrection was not organized by anybody. The insurrection broke out because the Hungarian people wanted peace, tranquillity, freedom and independence, to which the foreign occupiers replied with weapons. At the beginning of the struggle single groups, independent of each other, attacked the intruders without any sort of weapons and achieved their success with the weapons thus obtained. Hungarian youth made its own weapons.

"Maleter then showed such a weapon. It was an ordinary siphon bottle with two 15 centimeter ribbons hanging from the top. The siphon was filled with gasoline, saturating the ribbons. With such siphon bottles many Russian steel monsters were rendered harmless. The burning gasoline, flowing from the siphons, set the tanks on fire and burned them out.

"Q: 'Please tell us something about your part in the battles.'

"A: 'In the early hours of last Wednesday I received an order from the then Minister of Defense to set out with five tanks against insurgents in the Eighth and Ninth Districts, and to relieve the Kilian Barracks. When I arrived at the spot I became convinced that the freedom fighters were not bandits, but loyal sons of the Hungarian people. So I informed the Minister that I would go over to the insurgents. Ever since we have been fight. mg together, and shall n6t end the struggle so long as a single armed foreigner remains in Hungary.

"After the interview the correspondent of Magyar Honved talked with a Swiss journalist. . . The Swiss journalist said:

'We know that at present Hungary stands at the edge of a volcano's crater. . . . Ever since Tito took a stand against Soviet imperialism in 1948 the West has been understanding even toward those Communists who fought for their nations' freedom. We hope the Hungarian people will be able to consolidate their victory.'"



2300 "Further information has reached us on Friday regarding the movements of Soviet units in Hungary, especially in the eastern counties. On Friday morning two Soviet armored trains entered the frontier station of Zahony. After occupying this station the Soviet troops are reported to have taken over the line from Zahony to Nyiregyhaza. According to the Miskolc University radio station, during the night of Thursday to Friday a large armored unit arrived in the village of Kisvarda. Debrecen also announces the uninterrupted transit of Soviet troops. Coming from the east, units of tanks and automatic machine guns have been in transit through Szolnok in a westerly direction. In the opposite direction only supply cars were seen to pass. Between Szolnok and Abony, where some 200 tanks had entrenched themselves for several days, these have now left their position in a westerly direction. The MTI [official press service] office at Szolnok denies the report that Soviet troops have occupied the airport of the town. Soviet formations are stationed around the airport but they have not yet tried to take possession of it. Even at Pecs the airport has not been occupied. On Thursday and Friday battalions of tanks arrived in the area of Gyoengyoes and entrenched themselves there. Soviet troops are camping in the Nagyrede area. In none of the above mentioned places has a single Soviet soldier camped for the past few years. A Soviet armored corps stationed near Dombovar has surrounded the airport of Taszar, a few kilometers from Kaposvar. Soviet troop reconnaissance scouts have advanced as far as the suburbs of Kaposvar. There were no incidents. In the evening the arrival of some 20 Soviet trucks was announced, carrying infantry from Zahony to Nyiregyhaza. At Beregsurany some 50 motorized artillery batteries have crossed the Hungarian-Soviet frontier...." [73/74]


1830 "Railway traffic was resumed on certain lines Friday. . . . At present, shunting has started with five locomotives at Ferencvaros [in Budapest], the country's biggest railway yard. The formation of trains has started at the [name unintelligible] on the bank of the Danube and at the Rakos railway yard. The first train carrying medicines arrived from Hegyeshalom at the Kelenfoeld [Budapest] station Friday at noon. Reports from Miskolc state that traffic has been resumed also in the area of the railway directorate in Miskolc. Railway workers are striving to insure that as many workers' trains as possible are operating Saturday at dawn, especially in mining and industrial regions ...

Saturday, November 3, 1956


0910 "According to information received from Ferihegy Airport [Budapest], a message has been received from Prague announcing the arrival here this morning of an aircraft carrying 16 UN delegates. [74/75]

0930 Press review. Nepszava asks that work and production be resumed:

"Children are hungry, clothing and shoes wearing out, fuel is getting scarce, gas and electricity are getting weaker. The hospitals with all the wounded are endangered. . . . If the country is paralyzed, if its economy runs down, if it loses strength, it will be more exposed than ever before to the resumption of the Stalinst, Rakosiist tyranny. We certainly do not want this to happen; we cannot allow this to happen. It demonstrates great political wisdom that almost every worker in Csepel, workers of the Mavag, of the Ganz Electrical Works, of the Ganz Car Factory . . and several other big factories, most railroad men and construction workers, have decided to resume work because the continuation of the strike would paralyze the country's economy and would weaken us, not the enemy.


0800 Report that Soviet military forces are moving west through TransDanubia.

1105 "The newspaper Igazsag [Truth] yesterday asked the Revolutionary Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs three questions. The questions were:

1. Is it true that the Hungarian delegate at the UN, who played such an ignominious role, was actually Leo Konduktorov, Soviet oil engineer?

2. Is it true that Konduktorov was given the new name of Dr. Peter Kos by the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs?

3. Why is it that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not inform the nation of these facts when Konduktorov's assignment had become known?

"This morning the Revolutionary Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs gave the following answers:

It is true that Peter Kos is in reality a Soviet citizen and his name is Leo Konduktorov. It is true that the former leadership of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs participated in the renaming of Konduktorov. The Revolutionary Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs further stated that before Imre Nagy's declaration it had demanded the immediate cancellation of Peter Kos' appointment. Meanwhile, the Revolutionary Committee of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has prepared a proposal for the immediate removal of the Rakosiist and Stalinist diplomats. Necessary steps have already been taken for the recall of certain officials in the diplomatic service.

1130 Press review:

The Nepszabadsag editorial says that the Hungarian Socialist Workers'

[Communist] Party has been formed under difficult circumstances. The majority of the former Party organs has been disbanded . . . the situation is difficult. If we want to reorganize our resources, we must take a most energetic stand against the criminal leadership of the Hungarian Workers' Party. We must not and we will not admit to membership people who were directly responsible for devising and directing the policy which led to catastrophe . . . we will not become a party of a million members, we shall work more modestly than before. . . . We take a most resolute stand against every attempt to restore in Hungary the rule of landowners, capitalists and mining tycoons, and we take a most resolute stand for the maintenance of every achievement which proved correct and useful for the community. . . . We approve of the Imre Nagy declaration advocating the neutrality of our country and the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country's entire territory. We consider the resumption of work an urgent necessity because the strike is no longer in the interest of the nation but in that of the forces striving against the independence of the nation."


0800 Report of reinforcement of Soviet troops in Hungary:

"Most of the troops are being concentrated around Budapest. General Pal Maleter announced that last Wednesday [Soviet First Deputy Premier] Mikoyan promised ... that Soviet forces still garrisoned on Hungarian soil under the Warsaw Pact would be withdrawn. On the other hand, Radio Budapest [Radio Free Kossuth] announced that on his latest visit to Budapest, Mikoyan said that all Soviet troops will be withdrawn from Hungary except those which are to remain under the Warsaw Pact." [75/76]

Report that the Austro-Hungarian frontier has been closed off by Soviet troops.

"According to the reports of our people about 200 Soviet tanks are lined up on the Tisza River [runs north to south in eastern Hungary] facing westward."

More reports of Soviet tank, artillery and infantry reinforcements entering Hungary, occupying airfields and railroad stations.


1310 "Hungary's representatives will shortly appear in the United Nations to inform world public opinion and the world organization about the present situation and the circumstances which have emerged as a result of the revolution in Hungary. . . The government has declared the country's neutrality. This involves not only the rights but also the duties of neutrality. . . . We must insure, therefore, that as a neutral country we establish the neutrality of our foreign policy and information services. Essentially, we want to maintain friendly relations, on the basis of equality, first of all with our neighbors but naturally with other countries of the world as well.

"The further shaping of the Hungarian situation depends, beside the discussions taking place in the UN, to a decisive degree on the Hungarian-Soviet negotiations which are to begin very shortly. It is indispensable that a properly calm atmosphere be established in regard to these negotiations. The cause of the exceptional deterioration of Hungarian- Soviet relations lies in the fact that the Gero-Hegedus clique called Soviet troops into the Hungarian capital. The Hungarian revolution is not directed against the Soviet Union as a State; its main objective is to assure the withdrawal of Soviet forces. This must be clarified by all means...

"At the same time, Hungarian youth, the sons and daughters of workers, peasants and intellectuals, did not shed their blood in order to open a road to Fascism. The overwhelming weight of Hungarian public opinion sees the result of the revolution as the establishment of a neutral, independent and democratic country, and just as it was ready to sweep out Stalinist tyranny, so it will protect with the same determination and firmness its regained democratic achievements against all kinds of irresponsible incitements.

"Neutrality also involves the duty of putting an end to the manhunt in our country, and of using calm and dignified language in connection with our neighbors. We understand the anxiety of our Polish and Yugoslav friends for the future of the Hungarian revolution. We can set their minds at rest, however, because after the transitory disorders the situation has been for the most part consolidated..." [76/77]

1418 "Important announcement:

"The joint Committee of the Hungarian and Soviet Army Commands met this morning and both parties have explained their points of view as regards the technical problems of the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The joint Committee has agreed to study the mutual explanations and to meet again at 2100 [GMT] tonight.

"Meanwhile, the Soviet delegation has promised that several trains carrying Soviet troops will not cross the Hungarian frontier."

1510 "Imre Nagy . . . received at noon today Austrian Minister Peinsipp, who handed him the following aide memoire:

"'My government has authorized me to take the most energetic stand against allegations that the Austrian government permits armed or unarmed Hungarian emigres to infiltrate into Hungary through Austrian territory.

"'The Austrian government has ordered the establishment of a closed zone along the Austrian-Hungarian frontier.

The [Austrian] Minister of Defense has inspected the zone accompanied by the military attaches of the four Great Powers, including the USSR. The military attaches were thus enabled to make sure of the measures taken on the frontier zone with a view to protecting the Austrian frontier and Austrian neutrality.

The Austrian authorities have instructed former Premier Ferenc Nagy(12), who arrived unexpectedly in Vienna on Monday, to leave Austrian territory immediately. This is known to the Soviet authorities.' . . "[77/78]


1225 "Soviet forces here are marching from Vasarosnameny [near the Soviet border] towards Debrecen."

"The County Secretary of the Peasant Party . . . will now announce the program of his party:

"'Our lines were penetrated by irresponsible elements who became the humble servants of the Rakosi clique and who gained a harmful influence on the political life of the country. Together with the Rakosi clique they succeeded in turning the National Peasant Party aside from the path of honor and befouled its clean banner. We now resolve to raise up again the glorious and spotless flag of the National Peasant Party, and to continue our political movement under the name of the Petofi Peasant Party.

"'The Petofi Peasant Party believes in private property and advocates free production and marketing. In the field of religion we advocate the fullest freedom of conscience, freedom of religion and guaranteed security for the activities of churches true to the spirit of Christ. [We] demand extracurricular education for peasant children and youth.

"'We announce that we fully accept the 1945 Land Reform Law, that we will not return the land received by our peasantry, that we will fight relentlessly against any attempt to cast doubt on the correctness of that great national achievement, or against attempts to attack measures in the field of land reform. But we consider it necessary to reexamine all illegalities which have been committed since 1948....

"'While holding full respect for the right of the peasantry to sell its products without restrictions, we consider it neces sary, however, until sound peasant cooperatives are established, to maintain our existing agricultural collectives.

"'We demand that the national government disband the old parliament immediately, and upon the restoration of order convoke a temporary parliament with temporary delegates to frame a new election law. The temporary parliament should consist of 250 to 300 members and these should be delegates from the four former coalition parties.

"Tanks are approaching. . . . No one is in the streets except Soviet troops on patrol. Nyiregyhaza has been surrounded.

...Every part of the country has been occupied ... The situation has reached maximum tension..


1200 "According to information from the Ministry of Defense, a Soviet battalion in the Gyoengyoes area [about 50 miles northeast of Budapest] has handed its arms over to the civilian population, stating that it does not wish to fight the Hungarian people. Since handing over its arms, the battalion has been camping at the outskirts of the town... [78/80]



1900 "The majority of the Soviet units now in Hungary were on the move all Saturday. According to reports received from the northeast frontier, new Soviet formations entered Hungarian territory Saturday morning. According to observers a great number of [Soviet] armored vehicles are held in readiness near the Soviet frontier. The most important movements were affected near Szolnok, Nyiregyhaza and Debrecen in Eastern Hungary. Soviet troops have appeared in the regions of Bekescsaba and Szarvas, Eastern Hungary. .

"According to reports from Nyirbator [near Soviet border], Soviet armored vehicles and motorized infantry crossed the frontier near Beregsurany between 0700 and 1200 [GMT]. A convoy of trucks carrying Soviet families moved from Debrecen toward Vasarosnameny. Following the occupation of the railroad stations in Zahony and Nyiregyhaza, Soviet troops took over the station at Debrecen early this morning. According to information from Miskolc . . . Soviet troops are building railroad lines between Nyiregyhaza and Zahony.

"Soviet troops have occupied highway No. 4 running between Szolnok and Abony and stopped all vehicles moving toward Budapest. This morning Soviet trucks carried infantry from this region toward Budapest. The airport at Kunmadaras is under the control of Soviet troops.

"In several districts the population is in contact with Soviet troops through Revolutionary Committee delegates. . . . The [Soviet] officers and soldiers say that they have come to fight against the Fascists, against those who wish to restore the Fascist regime in Hungary. The people explain to them that there is no Fascism in Hungary, that the Hungarian people are fighting for freedom, for an independent Hungary, and for the well-being of the workers. Soviet officers, without exception, reply that they will not fire on the Hungarians and they also ask for the understanding of the people, for they have come as soldiers, under orders.

"The soldiers who arrived in Gyor said that they had travelled 600 kilometers to get there. They had been told that the Americans wanted to attack Hungary and that they must defend the Hungarian workers. It is obvious that the Soviet soldiers are unaware of the true situation and that, on seeing the enthusiasm of the people, they are more and more convinced that the Hungarian people are fighting for the independence of their Fatherland and for the well-being of the workers."

Review of the evening press:

"The periodical of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Society, to be published every Saturday, carries an editorial entitled 'What We Want -the Essential Points of the Program of the Hungarian Catholic Church.' Among other things the program stipulates the earliest possible re-establishment of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Hungary. . . - It points out that in keeping with the spirit of the papal encyclical Quadragesimo Anno, measures and social institutions which truly serve the welfare of the people must be strengthened. The fundamental unit of society is the family, which must be consolidated, the editorial emphasized. In this regard it quotes a point from Quadragesimo Anno which indicates that the worker must earn enough to be able to meet his own needs and those of his family.

"The editorial also demands that Catholic bodies be free to function and that all religious orders enjoy unlimited free dom. It also demands the return of the estates formerly owned by the Catholic Church. It also demands that schools which belonged to the Church be returned to it.

"The organ of the Petofi Party carries an article by the well-known Hungarian writer Laszlo Nemeth(13). He stresses that in the last few years Hungary has made big strides on the road toward Socialism and has become a Socialist State. To forget this would be just as grave a mistake as that made by Communists who did not take into consideration the real economic situation in Hungary, particularly in agriculture. The Communists overlooked the fact that agriculture here was more advanced than that of Russia before the October [1917] Revolution, and wanted to bring it down to that level.

Laszlo Nemeth then asks what we could gain or lose by maintaining or rejecting Socialism. By proclaiming our neutrality, we have established relations with the camp of neutral States, among which we have taken our position. These people are Socialist, such as Poland and Yugoslavia, or advancing towards systems akin to Socialism, such as India. These people will avoid us if we go back, or even seem to go back, to what they call bourgeois democracy. The respect which we hope we have aroused in the hearts of the people of the USSR and the attention given to us by the best sons of the West, who after this revolution expect from us an exemplary political system, urge us to this.

"Then Laszlo Nemeth suggests that all political parties issue a joint declaration in which they indicate their stand in favor of several great Socialist principles. On the basis of such a declaration . . . a political system of historical importance could be constituted: a multi-party system [80/81] based on a common fundamental principle combining the force of a social system based on an ideological foundation with the elasticity of a parliamentary system."

Report of a press conference held by Zoltan Tildy and Geza Losonczy for Hungarian and foreign journalists:

"A ... correspondent asked for information on the talks which took place today between representatives of the Hungarian and Soviet Armies. Tildy replied that negotiations began today and would continue tonight. 'One cannot yet speak of the results.' . . . Losonczy added: 'The talks have already yielded some results.

One can note a certain relaxation. Tildy said that he had information that the Soviet military delegation had promised that no new convoys of Soviet troops would cross the frontier. To the question as to whether the Soviet reply to demands put forward on Thursday by the Hungarian Premier [Nagy] regarding the withdrawal of Soviet troops was satisfactory, Tildy replied, 'The Soviet reply has not so far been satisfactory.'

"The Manchester Guardian correspondent asked whether the Hungarian government knew if the Polish government supported this demand [Tildy's statement that "we desire that the Soviet troops withdraw in the shortest possible time"] concerning the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary. Losonczy said that the Polish government believed that Hungarian questions should be settled without foreign intervention. ... To a question by another foreign correspondent as to whether the possibility of a clash between the Soviet and Hungarian armed forces existed, Tildy replied that Hungarian troops have received orders to refrain from all hostile acts. 'I believe that so tragic a clash could not take place. . .

To a question as to whether the Hungarian government had, in the course of the talks, received a guarantee from the Soviet side that this would not take place, Tildy replied that in the notes exchanged by the two sides there were no guarantees of this kind.

[Asked] whether the Soviet government had informed the Hungarian government about the dispatch of [81/82] reinforcements to Hungary, Tildy replied: 'That is a good question, but it has to be divided into two parts. The first part refers to the period when the preceding [Hegedus - Gero] government was in power. This government, which was still influenced by Rakosi, had indeed asked for intervention in the affairs of Hungary and asked for aid against the insurgent nation. This situation was brought to an end when the Imre Nagy government came to power.

"'This [Imre Nagy] government de dared on its very first day that it cancelled the request of the preceding government and asked for the immediate withdrawal of the Soviet troops then involved in our internal affairs. This request removed all legal and political foundations for the interference of Soviet troops. From the very first hour of the Imre Nagy government we sent a whole series of notes to speed the withdrawal of Soviet troops. We have not received any satisfactory reply. The Soviet government and the leaders of the troops which have come to Hungary never informed the Hungarian government in advance regarding their plans.' ...

"[Losonczy said:] 'The government has unanimously declared that it will not make any concessions as far as the positive achievements of the past twelve years are concerned, for example, in agrarian reform, the nationalization of factories, and social achievements. It also demands that the achievements of the present revolution remain intact, notably national independence, equality of rights, and the building of Socialism not on the basis of a dictatorship but on the basis of democracy. The government is determined not to tolerate the restoration of capitalism in Hungary.

'We wish to maintain and even broaden our good relations with the Soviet Union and the countries building Socialism...'"

Sunday, November 4, 1956


0420 "Attention! Attention! Premier Imre Nagy will address the Hungarian people:

"This is Premier Imre Nagy speaking. Today at daybreak Soviet troops attacked our capital with the obvious intent of overthrowing the legal democratic Hungarian government. Our troops are in combat. The government is at its post. I notify the people of our country and the entire world of this fact." [Announcement repeated in English, Russian, Hungarian, and French.] . . . [82/83]

0544 Announcement of an Associated Press report that the UN Security Council has received Hungary's appeal.

0655 "Report from New York. The Associated Press reported at 0624 that the United States early this morning asked the Security Council of the United Nations to hold an emergency meeting on Sunday to discuss the Soviet offensive in Hungary. The request was submitted by American Ambassador Lodge less than an hour after news agencies reported large-scale Soviet attacks in all of Hungary.

"The Security Council had discussed the Hungarian question Saturday night and adjourned the debate until Monday morning. Lodge, however, requested the Council's chairman to hold the meeting earlier should the situation deteriorate.

0656 "Attention, attention. You will now hear the manifesto of the Union of Hungarian Writers:

"This is the Union of Hungarian Writers! To every writer in the world, to all scientists, to all writers' federations, to all science academies and associations, to the intelligentsia of the world! We ask all of you for help and support; there is but little time! You know the facts, there is no need to give you a special report! Help Hungary! Help the Hungarian writers, scientists, workers, peasants, and our intelligentsia! ... "Help! Help! Help!"

0724 "SOS! SOS! SOS'

At 0725 [GMT3] Radio Free Kossuth went off the air with a repeated SOS signal. The station was silent until 2015. When transmission resumed it was in the hands of the Soviet-controlled regime.

The following broadcasts, in Hungarian, were picked up on the frequency usually occupied by the Balaton Szabadi transmitter, which normally broadcasts the Hungarian foreign-language broadcasts-the radio location was probably Szolnok.

0405 Statement by FERENC MUNNICH:

"Open letter to the Hungarian working people: compatriots- our worker and peasant comrades, we the undersigned, Antal Apro, Janos Kadar, Istvan Kossa and Ferenc Munnich, former Ministers in the Imre Nagy government, announce that on November 1, 1956, we broke off our relations with this government, left this government and took the initiative of forming the Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government.

"We were prompted to take this responsible step by the realization that, within the Nagy government, which became impotent under the pressure of the reaction, we could do nothing against the counterrevolutionary danger menacing our People's Republic, the rule of workers and peasants, and our Socialist achievements.

"Respected champions of the working class movement have been murdered-Imre Mezoe, Secretary of the Greater Budapest Party Committee; Comrade Kalmar, veteran fighter of the labor movement in Csepel; Sandor Sziklai, the director of the Museum of Military History. In addition, many, many respected sons of the working class and peasantry have been exterminated.

"As members of the government we could no longer watch idly . . . while, under the cover of democracy, counter-revolutionary terrorists and bandits were bestially murdering our worker and peasant brothers and terrorizing our peaceful citizens, dragging our country into anarchy, and putting our entire nation under the yoke of counterrevolution for a long time to come.

"Hungarian workers, compatriots, comrades! We have decided to fight with all our strength against the threatening danger of Fascism and reaction and its murderous gangs. We appeal to every loyal son of our People's Democracy, every follower of Socialism -first of all the Communists, workers, miners, the best sons of the peasantry and the intelligentsia, to support every measure of the Hungarian Worker-Peasant Government and its struggle for the liberation of the people."

0500 "Attention! Attention! Comrade Janos Kadar speaking:

"The Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government has been formed.

The composition of the government is the following: Premier, Janos Kadar; Deputy Premier, [also] Minister of the Armed Forces and of Public Security, Dr. Ferenc Munnich; Minister of State, Gyorgy Marosan; Minister of Finance, Istvan Kossa; Foreign Minister, Imre Horvath; Minister of Agriculture, Imre Dogei; Minister of Industry, Antal Apro; Minister of Commerce, Sandor Ronai. For the time being the other portfolios will not be filled. They will be filled with other ministers as soon as national order has been restored, members and non-members of the Party, who are ready to protect the achievements of Socialism.

We know that many questions are still awaiting a solution in our country, and that we shall have to cope [83/84] with many difficulties. The life of the workers is still far from what it should be in a country building Socialism.

"While progress was made during the past 12 years, the Rakosi-Gero clique committed many grave mistakes and gravely violated legality. All this rightly made workers discontent. The reactionaries are now seeking their own selfish ends. They raised their hands against our people's democratic regime, which means that they want to return the factories and enterprises to the capitalists, the land to the big landowners.

"Horthy's gendarmes and prison wardens and the representatives of the hated and cursed oppressive system have already set out to sit on the neck of the people. If they had won, they would not have brought freedom, well-being, and democracy, but slavery, misery, unemployment, and ruthless new oppression. Exploiting the mistakes committed during the building of our people's democratic system, the reactionary elements have misled many honest workers and particularly the youth, who joined the movement out of honest and patriotic intentions.

"Hungarians, brothers, patriots, soldiers, and citizens! We must put an end to the excesses of the counterrevolutionary elements. The hour of action is here. We are going to defend the power of the workers and peasants and the achievements of the people's democracy. We will bring about order, security, and calm in our country. The interest of the people and the nation is that they should have a strong government, a government capable of leading the country out of its grave situation. That is why we have formed the Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government. The program of this government is as follows:

"1. The securing of our national inde. pendence and our country's sovereignty.

"2. The protection of our people's democratic and Socialist system against all attacks. The protection of our Socialist achievements and the guaranteeing of our progress on the road of building Socialism.

"3. The ending of fratricidal fighting and the restoration of internal order and peace. The government will not tolerate, under any pretext, the persecution of workers for having taken part in the recent events.

"4. The establishment of close fraternal relations with every Socialist country on the basis of complete equality and noninterference. The same principle governs their mutual economic relations and assistance agreements.

"5. Peaceful cooperation with every nation, irrespective of its social order and form of government.

"6. The immediate and substantial raising of the living standard, particularly of the working class. Better housing for the workers -factories and institutes must be enabled to build apartments for their employees.

"7. Modification of the Five Year Plan, altering the methods of economic management, taking into consideration the country's capacity, so that the living standard can be raised as quickly as possible.

"8. Elimination of bureaucracy and broad development of democracy in the interest of the workers.

"9. On the basis of the broadest democracy, worker management must be inaugurated in factories and enterprises.

"10. The development of agricultural production, the abolition of compulsory deliveries, and assistance to individual farmers. The government will firmly liquidate all illegalities committed in the field of agricultural collectives and [land] commassation.

"11. The securing of democratic elections in the old organs of administration and the Revolutionary Councils.

"12. Support for retail trade and artisans.

"13. The systematic development of Hungarian national culture in the spirit of our progressive traditions.

"14. The Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government, acting in the interest of our people, our working class, and our country, requested the Soviet Army Command to help our nation in smashing the dark reactionary forces and restoring order and calm in the country.

"15. After the restoration ot order, the Hungarian government will begin negotiations with the Soviet government and with other participants of the Warsaw Pact on the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary.

"Workers, peasants, intellectuals, youth, soldiers and officers, support our nation's just struggle, protect our people's democratic system! Disarm counterrevolutionary gangs, line up behind the Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government. Resume work without delay. Working peasants, defend the land. . . Working youth and students, do not allow yourselves to be misled. Only the people's democracy can secure your future, therefore, protect it! Hungarian workers, the prerequisite for the realization of our justified economic, political, and social endeavors is the defense of the people's democratic power, the restoration of order, the resumption of work and production.

"It is for this that the Hungarian Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government is fighting and is calling on every unselfish son and daughter of the Hungarian Fatherland. Workers, brothers, truth is on our side. We will win."


0800 Announcement that the Soviet troops pushing into Budapest have imprisoned the Nagy government.

All Budapest bridges have been occupied by Soviet troops. Ujpest has fallen. The Army units and freedom fighters at Csepel continue to hold out. Soviet light bombers continue to enter the southern area of Trans-Danubia. Soviet armored units and artillery assisted by the air force are heavily attacking the bridge at Dunafoldvar [south of Budapest]."

0900 Reports that Soviet paratroops are landing in the area between Szekesfehervar and Gyor, and that Soviet motorized and armored troops are entering Hungary from Czechoslovakia over the Komarom Bridge.

Further reports that a desperate battle is under way between [84/85] Hungarian and Soviet troops between Gyor and Komarom, with the Soviet Air Force entering the battle in low-altitude attacks; that a strong fire was visible from the Budapest area; that [at 0830 GMT] the military radio stations of Gyor, Miskolc and Pecs made an appeal to the local councils to announce the general revolt.

Another report quoting Radio Free Pecs to the effect that the Revolutionary Council of the Trans-Danubian area has taken over temporary governmental power, since the Soviets have taken the Hungarian government prisoner.

Reports that Soviet troops and Hungarian troops are fighting between Miskolc and Helyocsaba, and that the Soviet Air Force has started to use incendiary bombs.

"The Revolutionary Council of the Miskolc Garrison Troops has declared a state of siege for the city. A Hungarian air bomber unit has started a big attack against Soviet troops crossing the Tisza. The Hungarian bombers are bombing the Soviet pontoon bridges built across the Tisza. . . . The miners of Pecs have armed themselves and have joined the Army troops fighting the Soviets.


0730 "This is the free radio of the Dunapentele National Committee. . . . The treacherous occupation forces have at tacked Budapest and several other cities in the country. The battle is on in Pecs, Szekesfehervar, Dunafoldvar, and Veszprem. Hungarian soldiers are fighting as one man against the invaders and will continue fighting for the sacred cause of the Hungarian revolution to their last drop of blood! The situation is serious but not hopeless. Our anti-aircraft artillery has been put into action all along the line. The fight against the intruder is raging everywhere! Hungarians, do not let the Russian troops carry out a massacre in our beloved country! Take your arms and stand united for the sacred cause of the defense of the country! . . . The Dunapentele garrison troops will hold out to the last man. Death to the Soviet occupiers!" [A patriotic poem follows.]

Doctors, nurses and hospital workers, report immediately to your places in the hospital. Soldiers and civilians who know how to handle guns should come immediately to the Bela Bartok House of Culture. Those under 18 and over 61 should return immediately to their homes.

"Attention! This is a call to mechanics. Mechanics who know how to handle 120-150 cubic centimeter machines should come immediately to the 51 workshops of the combined industrial enterprise to do repair work for the National Committee and the Revolutionary Military Council ...


1020 Announcements that, according to information received through the patriots' military radios, the Hungarian Army has pushed back the Soviets in the outer districts of Budapest; that the parliament building is on fire; that Soviet troops are setting up barricades in the center of Budapest, "trying in this way to defend themselves against the mounting fury of the population."

1100 Report that the miners of Tatabanya, aided by Hungarian Army units, are advancing between Tatabanya and Budapest and that the Tatabanya-Budapest railroad line, used for Soviet reinforcements, has been broken through at two points near Szar. Further report that the Tatabanya workers and the local population most emphatically reject the order issued by the Kadar regime to lay down arms, and that, informed of the increasing resistance, the Soviet commander-in-chief is sending additional reinforcements into the Tatabanya area.

An announcement to the effect that in areas in the hands of the [Kadar] Communists, several members of the TransDanubian National Council who tried to get in touch with the Communists have been executed. News that Budapest is in flames and that Soviet troops have been pushed back at Ujpest, Kobanya, Kelenfoeld, Csepel and Obuda.


0902 "Workers, Hungarian workers! The counterrevolutionary government has resigned. They did not succeed in delivering our country to the Western capitalists. They could not succeed, because the Hungarian workers and peasants reject the Fascist dictatorship.

"Attention, attention!

"You will now hear the order of the [Soviet] Military Commander [of Vas County]

"In the city, and in Vas County, the local administrative organs have been unable to maintain order and to secure public safety. Criminal provocateurs continue to harass the peaceful population, to loot public buildings, shops and private homes. They continue bestially to murder Soviet soldiers! All this delays talks between the Hungarian and Soviet governments in regard to the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Hungary!

"In order to protect the homes of peaceful citizens and the public buildings from rebel acts and disorders, I, the commanding officer of the city and county, command that patrols of Soviet troops should guard public buildings and enterprises. I order:

"1. Civilians who possess arms to deliver them immediately to the Soviet military command. Those who do not comply will be severely punished. [85/86]

"2. In cities and villages traffic and pedestrians are temporarily permitted to circulate between 0700 and 1700 only.

"3. I order work to continue in shops, bakeries, etc., so that undisturbed food supply to the population is secured. Every single citizen, all public installations, must comply with this order until public safety is fully restored.

"Signed: Military Commander of Szombathely and Vas County.


[in Hungarian, Italian, French, German)

1200 "Attention! Attention! This is the last free Hungarian station!

"This morning at 0130 Russian forces launched a general attack on the Hungarian nation. We ask the United Nations to send immediate help! We ask for parachute troops to be dropped over Dunantul [Western Hungary]. It is possible that our broadcasts will soon stop and you will hear us no more. We will only be silent when they have killed us. This morning at 0130 the Soviet troops launched a general attack against Hungarian troops. We do not know when we shall be massacred. [Repeated several times.]

"Attention! According to unconfirmed news Czechoslovak tanks are also involved in the fighting...."

1421 "Attention, Radio Free Europe. We ask for immediate armed help! We shall report again if possible. We now interrupt our broadcast. We shall report again if possible."

[Dunapentele was not heard again.]


1334 "Civilized people of the world, listen and come to our aid, not with declarations, but with force, with soldiers and arms. Do not forget that there is no stopping the wild onslaught of Bolshevism. Your turn will also come, once we perish. Save our souls! save our souls!

"Peoples of Europe whom we helped for centuries to withstand the barbaric attacks from Asia, listen to the tolling of Hungarian bells warning against disaster.

Civilized peoples of the world, we implore you to help us in the name of justice, of freedom, of the binding moral principle of active solidarity. Our ship is sinking. Light is failing, the shadows grow darker every hour over the soil of Hungary. Listen to the cry, civilized peoples of the world, and act; extend to us your fraternal hand.

"SOS, SOS -may God be with you. [86/87]


1520 "We request Radio Free Europe to relay immediately the following message to the Secretary-General of the UN:

"Appeal to the Secretary-General of the UN!

"We speak to you in the name of the en-tire Hungarian people. Soviet troops are attacking our country for the second time in two weeks. They have turned our country into a battleground without regard for our people and our national values. The first time they interfered in our domestic affairs at the request of a government alien to the people. The Hungarian people energetically and unmistakably repulsed this attempt with arms in their hands. By fighting we made it possible for Imre Nagy to become Premier. He proclaimed the supreme wish of the Hungarian people for neutrality and independence.

"After this the entire Hungarian people joined Imre Nagy and they are still behind him. Although we have only been in possession of neutrality for two days we expect the whole world to respect it! Our government has cancelled the Warsaw Pact and ordered negotiations for withdrawal of Soviet troops. We accuse the Soviet Union:

"1. Of armed aggression from outside the country.

"2. Of having arrested the Minister of Defense, Maleter, and his staff, who went to negotiate the withdrawal of troops.

"Since the only legal Hungarian government, that of Imre Nagy, has been imprisoned, and since that was the only organ which represented the official attitude of the Hungarian nation, in the name of our country we ask that the UN, by every possible means, pass a final resolution for the restitution and the protection of the liberty which we had already once won.

"We now address a message to the delegates of the UN member States:

"In the coming hours you will decide the life or the death of this nation. While your sons are at peace and happy, we sons of the Hungarian nation are falling under the cruel fire of Soviet tanks and bombers. Our country has been attacked from the outside. We turn to you for you are our last citadel of hope.

"Exercise the opportunity which your nation has given to you and save our country from destruction and slavery! We are asking for immediate and effective help which will save us from further bloodshed and will restore our independence. Show that the UN can carry out its will, and by its resolution make it possible for our country again to be free! We appeal to your conscience and call on you to act immediately ... [87/88]


1400 "We announce in the name of the Hungarian Army troops, that they will not put down their arms. Should the combat troops bleed to death, then the older generation will continue the fight

Report that arrested children are being tied with rope to the front of Soviet tanks and the tanks thus continue their onslaught against the Hungarian troops. . .


1356 Ultimatum to Hungarian Army troops to surrender by 1700 [GMT] deadline or face extermination by Soviet troops. Message to the city of Karcag to cease resistance, warning that if arms are not laid down by 1700 [GMT] the Soviet Air Force will bomb the city. . .


2217 "First order of the Soviet military commander of Szolnok city:

"The forces of reaction and counterrevolution organized an uprising in Hungary at the end of October in order to overthrow the people's democratic regime and do away with the achievements of the working class and to restore the capitalist system. By virtue of the Warsaw Pact of the Socialist nations, the Hungarian government turned to the Soviet government for help in liquidating the counterrevolutionary forces and restoring order.

"The Soviet government has complied with this request; our troops have begun to restore order and have prevented the rebirth of Fascism. . .

"I order that as of November 4, 1956, a curfew be imposed upon Szolnok between 1430 and 0500 [GMT] hours.

"All military formations, armed groups and armed civilians must hand in their arms by 1700 hours on November 5, 1956, to the main department of the Ministry of the Interior in Szolnok County. Those who fail to comply will be brought before a military court.

"Until further orders, all assemblies, gatherings, theater and film performances, etc., are prohibited. I call on the population of Szolnok to carry out my orders.

Food shops shall be kept open in order to insure a food supply to the population. I have appointed Colonel [Novorov?] as Soviet military commander of Szolnok.

"Signed: Commander of Soviet troops stationed at Szolnok, Colonel [Bosustov?]" 2245 "Compatriots, workers, peasants, citizens, comrades! Working people of Szolnok County! The country is passing through grave times, especially our beloved capital, Budapest. . . . [Taking advantage of the peaceful youth demonstration of October 23] a gang of guttersnipes under the slogan of democratization and the flag of freedom launched a devastating campaign against the achievements and leaders of the people.

"The counterrevolutionary bandits want to get back everything-the factories, the land, which the people rightly took into their possession. They have not had the courage yet to speak frankly of the taking back of factories and land. But some newspaper articles and radio talks foreshadowed their sinister designs. In the November 3 issue of Szolnokmegyei Neplap [People's Newspaper of Szolnok County -a revolutionary paper] an article openly [88/89] states that peasant farming must, in accordance with the conditions prevailing after the land reform, be based on the inviolability of private property, that security of peasant farming must be created. . . . In other words, back to the 1945 land reform: that is, security for owners of 100 or 200 holds [1 hold 1.42 acres]. . . . For the time being they would have been satisfied with this. . . The next step would have been the restoration of estates of 1,000 and 10,000 holds and [the restoration] of the exploiting rule of the Baghys and Esterhazys, the counts and gentry and squires.

"Collective farm members, individual farmers! Take a firm stand against all such attempts to 'tidy up' your land, in plain language, to rob it! Working peasants! Defend the kolkhozes, defend your land.

Hands off the kolkhozes, the State farms, and the lands of the individual farmers!

"Workers, comrades! Your justified demands-settlement of wages and norms, raising of the standard of living, housing construction, setting up of workers councils, are all demands which the new government has accepted, and it will meet them. You surely heard the speech of Janos Kadar, the veteran revolutionary, ill-treated by the Rakosi clique, in which he outlined his program. [The 15-point program of the Kadar government follows.]

Finally we inform the working people of Szolnok County that the restoration of order has been taken over by units of the Soviet Army. . . We request the people to continue to remain calm and to comply with the orders of the forces maintaining security. . . .

"Soviet soldiers, do not endanger either the personal or material safety of a single citizen. Preserve your calm. Truth is on our side and will triumph.

"Signed: Szolnok County branch of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' [Communist] Party


1900 "Dear listeners, we now transmit some official announcements. We call on the professors and students of the universities and high schools to start lectures and instruction tomorrow morning as usual.

"Attention, attention: until further notice curfew is to last from 1700 to 0600. . .

"Attention: the curfew regulations do not apply to bakers and workers of the food industry. We inform all these workers that the commander of the city authorizes them to circulate freely during the curfew. We request that [they] increase the [food] supply to the population with conscientious and disciplined effort."

Appeal of the [Communist] Party Committee and the National Council of Baranya County:

"Workers, peasants and intelligentsia! In . . . recent days it has become clear that the justified demands of workers, peasants, youth and intellectuals have been exaggerated by counter-revolutionary forces, and, taking advantage of our people's patriotism, they were launching an attack against the power of the working class. Comrades, workers, you know best what capitalist rule means, what unemployment, hunger, misery and humiliation mean. We believe that none of the workers want any of these things. Comrades, the attempt of the counter-revolutionaries has been defeated in the entire country and in our county also.

"Do not believe the lies of Radio Free Europe!

"After the restoration of order we promise you that we shall work in a new manner; we will not permit those illegalities which were committed by the old leaders. In the future, the workers will definitely become masters of the factories. You must re-elect worker councils, with Party leadership, from those workers who remained loyal to the proletarian power...

"Workers, support the Revolutionary Worker-Peasant Government established under the leadership of Comrade Janos Kadar. . . . Do not expect a better future from the counter-revolution but solely from the Worker-Peasant Revolutionary Government.

"Signed: County Baranya Party Committee and County Council."

2100 Order of the Soviet military commander:

"I order:

"1. The Revolutionary National Committees to disband.

"2. The population to hand in all weapons to the military command, in the building of the former security police, by 1700 [GMT], November 5, 1956. .

"3. All factories and offices to start work on November 5 as usual.

"4. The population strictly to refrain from demonstrations and gatherings. The cultural and entertainment places to remain closed until further notice.

"5. The population may circulate in the town from 0600 to 1800 [GMT]. Shops may stay open during that time.

"6. In case of firing at Soviet soldiers, and at any citizen, the Soviet armed forces will fire back with all weapons at their disposal." [89/90)


1908 Faint SOS signals and calls for help, made unintelligible at times by jamming and atmospheric conditions. Suddenly, out of the welter of background noise, a voice in clear English:

"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal ...

Here the voice was drowned in the other noises. Then:

The brave men living and dead who struggled here have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract ...

1910 The voice became inaudible. [90]

1. From The Revolt in Hungary.. A Documentary Chronology of Events, Based Exclusively on Internal Broadcasts by Central and Provincial Radios, October 23, 1956 - November 4, 1956. (New York: Free Europe Committee, n.d.), pp. 4-19, 22-34, 36-45, 48-53, 55, 56, 59-78, 80-90. Reprinted by permission of the Free Europe Committee, Inc.

2. Louis Kossuth, Nineteenth Century Hungarian leader, hero of the March 15, 1848 revolution against Austria. See later demand for national holiday to mark the day.

3. Polish patriot and leader who also fought for Hungarian independence in the 19th Century.

4. The overall mass organization, led by Communists and fellow-travelers, but predominantly made up of non-Communists.

5. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is one hour earlier than Budapest time.

6. The former were the greatest family of aristocratic landowners in pre-communist days, the latter the greatest industrialist, Manfred Weiss.

7. The Kilian Barracks were under the command of General Maleter, who was made Defense Minister on November 3. This position became a focal point of resistance in Budapest.

8. This refers to the last of a series of decrees dealing with the redistribution of land. These decrees were introduced to facilitate collectivization and make it possible for collectives to include the best land in a close geographic unit, leaving the individual peasants with strips often far removed from their home.

9. Bela Kovacs, former Secretary-General of the Independent Smallholders' Party, was arrested in 1947 and released from prison only recently.

Ferenc Erdei, originally a member of the National Peasant Party, has held ministerial positions in successive Communist governments for the past eleven years.

Geza Losonczy, a "national" Communist appointed Deputy Minister in 1947, was arrested in 1951 and recently freed and appointed editor of Magyar Nemzet.

10. Bechtler, a Social Democrat, was Deputy Mayor of Budapest in 1946-48; in 1950 he was jailed by the regime, and only recently rehabilitated.

11. Geza Losonczy is a Communist follower of Nagy; Jozsef Kovago represents the Smallholders' Party; Marton the Army; Ferenc Farkas the National Peasant Party, Vilmos Zentai the Social Democratic Party.

12. Ferenc Nagy was head of the Smallholders' Party, and Premier of Hungary 1946-47.

13. Nemeth was elected to the Presidium of the Writers' Union in September 1956, in the election which overthrew the Stalinist leadership of the Union; he was not a Communist.

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